Overuse or repeated movements during sports,
work, or other activities. In sports, a change in how long, intensely, or often
you exercise, or a change in your environment (such as going from a flat
surface to a hill or from a paved road to a dirt road) can cause microtears in
the tendon that are unable to heal quickly and will eventually cause pain.
Injury from repeated push-offs or a stop-and-go motion, common in
such activities as running, basketball, tennis, or ballet dancing.
Poor conditioning or warm-up (as when you start a new activity or
have not stretched before and after an activity).
Shoes with poor
arch support or rigid heels that do not cushion the heel.
Sudden, forceful motion that stresses the calf
muscle, such as during an intense athletic activity or even during simple
running or jumping, especially in middle-aged adults. A
rupture most often occurs in sports such as
basketball, racquet sports (including tennis), soccer, and softball.
Overstretching the tendon during any activity
when the tendon is already damaged because of Achilles tendinopathy or another
corticosteroid injections (in the past, a common
treatment for overuse tendon injury). Corticosteroids can weaken or break down
tendon tissue, making it more likely to rupture.