You can have ADPKD and not know it for many years. It’s often called “adult PKD,” because the symptoms don't usually appear until people reach ages 30 to 40. But over time, ADPKD can start to damage your kidneys.
Early detection is the first step in treating chronic kidney disease. The symptoms of kidney disease may include:
Nausea and vomiting
Passing only small amounts of urine
Swelling, particularly of the ankles, and puffiness around the eyes
Unpleasant taste in the mouth and urine-like odor to the breath
Persistent fatigue or shortness of breath
Loss of appetite
Increasingly higher blood pressure
Muscle cramps, especially in the legs
You can slow the damage and prevent some of the complications by making healthy habits part of your life. Depending on the type of ADPKD you have, you can lead an active life for many years by managing your symptoms and working with your doctor. There’s not a cure, but scientists are doing research to look for new treatments.
ADPKD is caused by a problem with one of two genes in your DNA -- PKD1 or PKD2. These genes make proteins in kidney cells that let them know when to grow. A problem with either gene causes kidney cells to grow out of control and form cysts.
Many genetic diseases happen when a person gets broken genes from both parents, but with ADPKD you need only one faulty gene to have the disease. That's why this kind of PKD is called “autosomal dominant,” meaning only one parent has to pass on a broken gene.
If one parent has the disease, each child has a 50-50 chance of getting it.
You can get ADPKD even if neither of your parents had the disease. This happens when one of your PKD genes gets a defect on its own. But it’s rare for someone to get it this way.