The process of blood donation and the handling of donated
blood in the United States is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). The FDA enforces five layers of overlapping safeguards to
protect the blood supply against disease.
Donor screening. To
donate blood, you must answer a series of questions about your current health,
health history, any travel to countries where certain diseases are common, and
behavior that increases your risk for getting certain diseases, such as drug
use or unprotected sex. Your temperature, your blood pressure, and the volume
of red blood cells in a blood sample (hematocrit) are
checked. You may not be allowed to donate blood if any of these screening steps
suggests a problem, such as potential exposure to an infectious disease or
Deferred-donor lists. Organizations that collect blood must keep lists of people who
are permanently prevented from giving blood. Potential donors must be checked
against this list so that blood is not collected from them. The deferred-donor
list includes people who have had certain types of cancer, had
hepatitis after age 11, or are at high risk for
Blood testing. After donation, every unit of blood is tested for certain diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, HIV, West Nile virus, syphilis, and
HTLV-I/II viruses. If any disease is detected, the blood is thrown away.
Quarantine. Donated blood is kept isolated
from other blood and cannot be used for any purpose until it passes all
Quality assurance. Blood
centers must keep careful records of every unit of donated blood. If a problem
arises involving a donated unit of blood, the blood center must notify the FDA
and work with them to correct the problem.
Donating blood for your own use
If you are going
to have surgery and expect to need a
blood transfusion, you may want to consider donating
or banking your own blood before the surgery (autologous donation).