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    When you have diabetes, one of the best clues about your health stares you in the face when you look in the mirror every morning. The condition affects your teeth, gums, and general oral health in many ways.

    “If left untreated, diabetes can really take a toll on your mouth,” says Alice Boghosian, DDS, a spokeswoman for the American Dental Association.

    When you think of a treatment for diabetes, a toothbrush isn’t the first thing that comes to mind. But there is a link.

    If I don’t take care of my teeth, what happens?

    “Diabetes can cause a lot of things,” Boghosian says. “First of all, it can put you at higher risk for oral infections.”

    You may have less flow of saliva and more sugar in the fluid between your teeth, which leads to infections that can cause pain in your mouth. They look like white or red patches on your gums, tongue, or the inside your cheeks. You might even notice dark spots or holes in your teeth.

    Diabetes also makes you more likely to get fungal infections, such as thrush, which leaves white patches in your mouth that can turn into sores or ulcers. 

    “Some studies suggest that preventing gum disease can help you control your blood sugar,” Boghosian says.

    What about my gums?

    “The most common effect of diabetes is swollen and bleeding gums,” Boghosian says. She notes that about 1 in 5 people with diabetes have gum disease.

    If it’s not treated, gum disease can cause your blood sugar to rise, and that makes your diabetes harder to manage. “Since [diabetes] makes you more susceptible to infections, you’re less able to fight bacteria that invade the gums,” Boghosian says. “It’s a vicious cycle.”

    The reverse is also true. If your blood sugar is out of control because of an infection in your mouth, then treating that infection will tame your blood sugar.

    Does diabetes affect my teeth?

    “Yes,” Boghosian says. “High blood sugar or some medications can cause you to have less saliva, so your mouth can feel dry. Without saliva to cleanse and rinse your teeth, you’re at a much higher risk for cavities.”