Questions and Answers: Artificial Nutrition and Hydration and End of Life Decision Making
Can artificial nutrition and hydration be stopped once it has been started?
Yes. As with any other medical treatment, stopping treatment is both legally
and ethically appropriate if treatment is of no benefit to the patient or it is
unwanted. In fact, the law requires that treatment be stopped if the patient
does not want it. If it were not possible to stop treatment once started,
patients might not receive treatment that might be helpful for fear it could
not be stopped later.
In practice, however, caregivers often have a more difficult time stopping a
treatment that has been started than simply not starting it. Stopping a
treatment makes some caregivers feel as if they are in some way
"killing" the patient. It is important for health caregivers, family
members, and surrogates to remember that it is the underlying disease that is
causing death. The treatment is prolonging the dying process.
The following list indicates a range of care that may be needed by your loved one. Caregiving responsibilities may be too big to be managed by only one primary caregiver. This list of activities is provided to help you determine your loved ones' needs and to discuss as a family how those needs can best be met -- without draining the primary caregiver.
Things to Do
Who Can Help?/How Often?
Changing bed linen...
Conflicts about stopping artificial nutrition and hydration often arise
because the patient's wishes are not clearly known or the patient has not
designated an agent to make decisions for him. Some state laws also may create
obstacles to stopping treatment. In situations of uncertainty, the usual
fallback position is to continue treatment. Conflicts also may occur because
the patient's healthcare provider believes that it is never appropriate to stop
or withhold artificial nutrition and hydration. It is important that
individuals talk to their doctors and loved ones about their wishes regarding
the use of artificial nutrition and hydration at the end of life so they will
Can anything be done if the doctor insists on providing artificial nutrition and hydration?
Yes. If individuals have made their wishes known, the doctor must honor
those wishes or transfer their care to another doctor who will honor them. To
keep this kind of conflict from developing, it is wise for people to talk with
their physicians before a medical crisis arises, if possible, so they know
their physician will honor their end-of-life choices.
Is it considered suicide to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration? Is it considered suicide to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration?
No. When a person is refusing life-sustaining treatment at the end of life,
including artificial nutrition and hydration, it is not considered an act of
suicide. A person at the end of life is dying, not by choice, but because of a
particular condition or disease. Continuing treatment may delay the moment of
death but cannot change the underlying condition.
WebMD Medical Reference from the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization