Are workers paying a high price for productivity?
Feb. 21, 2000 (Washington) -- For most of his nearly nine years as a worker
in a chicken slaughterhouse in Harbeson, Del., Walter Frazier outperformed
everyone around him. About 10,000 times a day he would take a live, often
reluctant chicken off the conveyor belt in front of him and hang it by its feet
on a line over his head; from there it would be carried to the kill room.
His co-workers saw it as a thankless job, one they did everything to avoid.
But Frazier talks with pride of hanging as many as 26 birds in a minute --
"I was a leader in there" -- and showing younger workers what a hard
day's labor involved.
But Frazier has paid a high price for his productivity. Three times in the
past two years he has had surgery to repair cysts and other injuries in his
wrists and hands -- damaged, his doctors say, by the repetitive motion his job
required. He also has severe arthritis in his shoulders and hands, along with
lower back pain.
Frazier's case is well known to officials of the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) -- so much so that this past November, when the
agency proposed new regulations aimed at preventing such injuries, they invited
him to speak at the Washington, D.C., press conference. After eight years of
political battles, OSHA unveiled a standard that would require many employers
to institute workplace ergonomics programs, which, depending on circumstances,
will range from performing employee education to modifying job tasks to
providing different workstations or equipment. The goal is to stem the rising
tide of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including those known as
repetitive stress or repetitive strain injuries, that account for one third of
all occupational injuries reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics each
Such injuries go beyond the computer-related carpal tunnel syndrome plaguing
office workers to include a variety of soft tissue and joint problems. These
can affect cashiers, baggage handlers, meat packers, bakers -- anyone whose job
regularly requires heavy lifting, overhead reaching, or other repetitive tasks.
And while the financial costs of these injuries are significant -- in 1997,
MSDs accounted for $1 of every $3 spent on workers' compensation, and OSHA
estimates the bill for employers is more than $15 billion each year -- there's
also a highly personal toll: MSDs can permanently disable workers, leaving them
unable to do their jobs or perform everyday tasks. "It's important for us
to remember there are real people out there getting hurt," OSHA
Administrator Charles Jeffress says.
But many business groups and lawmakers say the measures in OSHA's proposal
will themselves require unwarranted expense. Citing insufficient scientific
evidence, they argue the government should not regulate this issue until
there's conclusive proof that workplace ergonomics actually cause (or can
remedy) MSDs. "There is a lack of consensus in the scientific and medical
communities on the causes of MSDs," says Jennifer Krese, director of
employment policy for the National Association of Manufacturers. "Certainly
not enough to justify a rule of this magnitude."