Are workers paying a high price for productivity?
But many business groups and lawmakers say the measures in OSHA's proposal
will themselves require unwarranted expense. Citing insufficient scientific
evidence, they argue the government should not regulate this issue until
there's conclusive proof that workplace ergonomics actually cause (or can
remedy) MSDs. "There is a lack of consensus in the scientific and medical
communities on the causes of MSDs," says Jennifer Krese, director of
employment policy for the National Association of Manufacturers. "Certainly
not enough to justify a rule of this magnitude."
Numerous studies, including research reviewed in 1998 by the National
Academy of Sciences (NAS) involving 66 leading specialists in orthopedic
surgery and occupational medicine, suggest ergonomics can be at least partly
responsible for MSDs. "Physical work factors [such as lifting heavy boxes
or equipment] can affect the loading [strain] that is experienced by a worker's
tissues and structures," the NAS report said, adding, "Research clearly
demonstrates that specific interventions can reduce the reported rate of
musculoskeletal disorders for workers who perform high-risk tasks." A new
NAS study on the subject, which will reexamine current medical findings and
look closely at how these disorders can be prevented, is slated for completion
in early 2001.
But most experts agree that these injuries rarely stem from ergonomics
alone; a combination of contributing factors are often involved, including work
schedules, pacing of activities, and time pressures on the job. And anyone
looking to quantify how much any specific factor is to blame could find it a
tough issue to study. "It's difficult to apply critical, scientific methods
to determine that a particular action done repetitively over a number of hours
will result in injury,'' says Russell E. Windsor, M.D., an orthopedic surgeon
and expert in joint replacement surgery from the Hospital for Special Surgery
in New York. Unlike a workplace accident, the origins of repetitive injuries
are "subtle," he adds. "So many different things can come into
play. It's not like having a steel pipe hit you on the head. ''
Even so, OSHA insists enough evidence exists to move forward with ergonomics
programs, pointing to numerous success stories where employers have already
reduced workplace injuries by voluntarily making adjustments. That doesn't
always mean buying new equipment; sometimes simply allowing more frequent
breaks or varying a worker' s tasks is all that's required. When equipment does
need modifying, it can be as minor as changing the height of a desk or
keyboard. But it can also be as major as buying new lifting equipment or
rebuilding an entire assembly line.