Vitamins: Separating Fact From Fiction
Experts cut through the hype about the health benefits of vitamin supplements.
Maintaining a Healthy Diet
It's easy to get enough micronutrients from your food if you maintain a
healthy diet, Audrey Cross, PhD, associate clinical professor of nutrition at
Columbia's School of Public Health, tells WebMD. But most people fail that
test; they'll eat two or three servings of fruits and veggies per day rather
than the recommended five. That's why Cross (and many other nutritionists)
suggest a multivitamin as a sort of nutritional safety net for many of their
But it's just a safety net. So-called "whole foods" like veggies and
whole grains contain fiber and a host of other important nutrients that can't
be adequately delivered through pills. In fact, scientists are still finding
new "trace elements" in whole foods that may someday be labeled
essential to health -- but aren't found in any pill.
"There are literally thousands of these compounds, and we're just
scratching the surface on knowing what their role is," says David Grotto, a
registered dietitian and spokesman for the American Dietetic Association.
"We're sending the wrong message if people believe they've got everything
under control and if they're taking vitamins while eating a horrible
Choosing a Supplement
It's easy to become overwhelmed when looking at the dietary supplement
shelves of a health food store or even your local supermarket. While many of
the health claims are unproven or downright bogus, some supplements may be
useful for some groups.
Major multivitamin makers typically produce different varieties for men,
women, children and older folks. Picking a pill that fits your group makes
sense, says dietitian Grotto, as the optimal level of various nutrients varies
by age and sex. For example, premenopausal women need more iron than children
or the elderly, he says.
But the elderly have a harder time obtaining adequate amounts of vitamin
B-12 from natural sources, so the need for supplementation may increase with
age, says Lynn Bailey, a University of Florida nutritionist who teaches courses
Folate, or folic acid, is key to preventing birth defects (such as spina
bifida), Bailey says. Bailey says all women of childbearing age should ensure
they get 100% of the RDA of folic acid through fortified food or a