Public health scientists verified that a common virus -- a coronavirus -- that has become more severe as the likely cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Many people wonder just how scientists know that the cause is a virus and, more importantly, this particular virus.
In 1890, Robert Koch described the basis rules that scientists use to determine if an infectious organism causes a specific disease. These four rules are called "Koch's postulates."
The organism must be found in...
Don't assume that local
drinking water is safe after a flood or hurricane. Listen to local
announcements on water safety.
If you can't get bottled water and tap water safety is questionable, purify
your drinking water. Here are three ways to do that:
Boil water vigorously for one to three minutes (three minutes for altitudes
above 1 mile).
If you can't boil water, add eight drops (an eighth of a teaspoon or 0.75
milliliters) of newly purchased, unscented liquid household bleach per gallon
of water, stir it well, and let the water stand for 30 minutes before you use
it. This should get rid of any bacteria in the water but won't kill
Water-purifying tablets are another option. Look for them at pharmacies or
sporting goods stores.
Food Safety After Floods and Hurricanes
If flooding has happened, immediately evaluate your supply of stored food
Perishable items (like meat, poultry, milk, seafood, and eggs) that are not
properly frozen or refrigerated may make people sick, even if those foods are
Don't eat any food that's come into contact with floodwater.
Throw out food that's not in a waterproof container if there's any chance
floodwater touched it. That includes food containers with screw caps, snap
lids, and home-canned foods.
Undamaged, commercially canned foods can be saved. Here's how:
Remove the labels
Thoroughly wash the cans
Disinfect the cans with a quarter of a cup of bleach per gallon of
Relabel the cans with a marker. Include the expiration date.
Get rid of wooden cutting boards, plastic utensils, baby-bottle nipples, and
pacifiers. They can't be safely cleaned if they've been touched by
Thoroughly wash metal pans, ceramic dishes, and utensils with soap and hot
water. Then sanitize them by boiling in clean water or immersing them for 15
minutes in a solution of a quarter of a cup of chlorine bleach per gallon of