What is a fractured rib?
A rib fracture is a crack or break in one of the bones of the rib cage. A break in the thick tissue (cartilage) that connects the ribs to the breastbone may also be called a fractured rib, even if the bone itself is not broken.
The most common cause of a fractured rib is a direct blow to the chest, often from a car accident or a fall. Coughing hard can also fracture a rib. This is more likely to happen if you have a disease that has made your bones weak, such as osteoporosis or cancer.
What happens when you break a rib?
Your ribs have two main jobs:
- They protect the organs in your chest.
- They help you breathe by keeping space open inside your chest while the muscles you use to breathe squeeze in, or contract. This leaves plenty of space for your lungs to fill up with air.
The muscles used for breathing pull on the ribs, so breathing may be very painful when you have a fractured rib.
It is important to see a doctor after a rib injury. A blow that is hard enough to fracture a rib could also injure your lungs, spleen, blood vessels, or other parts of your body. A common injury when you have a fractured rib is a punctured or collapsed lung (pneumothorax).
Flail chest is a serious problem that happens when three or more ribs are broken in more than one place. If you have flail chest, the broken area can't hold its shape when you take a breath. This leaves less space in your chest for your lungs to open and air to flow in. It also makes it harder for the muscles to work well, so it's harder to take a breath.
What are the symptoms?
A fractured rib may cause:
- Mild to severe pain in the injured area.
- Pain when you breathe.
- Pain around the fracture when someone pushes on your breastbone.
If you can't breathe normally because of your injuries, you may:
- Feel short of breath.
- Feel anxious, restless, or scared.
- Have a headache.
- Feel dizzy, tired, or sleepy.