Bladder infections are known as cystitis or inflammation of the bladder. They are common in women, but very rare in men. More than half of all women get at least one bladder infection at some time in their lives. However, a man's chance of getting cystitis increases as he ages, due to in part to an increase in prostate size.
Doctors aren't sure exactly why women have many more bladder infections than men. They suspect it may be because women have a shorter urethra, the tube that carries urine...
Paragonimiasis is caused by infection with a trematode. That's a parasitic worm also called a fluke or lung fluke because it commonly infects the lungs. Usually, infection comes after eating undercooked crab or crayfish that carry immature flukes.
Once swallowed by a person, the worms mature and grow inside the body. Over months, the worms spread through the intestines and belly (abdomen). They penetrate the diaphragm muscle to enter the lungs. Once inside the lungs, the worms lay eggs and can survive for years, causing chronic (long-term) paragonimiasis.
Paragonimiasis is rare in the U.S. Most cases occur in Asia, West Africa, and South and Central America.
Paragonimiasis causes no symptoms during initial infection. Many people with paragonimiasis never experience any symptoms. When paragonimiasis symptoms do occur, they result from the worms’ location and activity in the body, which change over time.
In the first month or so after someone is infected, paragonimiasis worms spread through the abdomen, sometimes causing symptoms that can include: