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    Variegate Porphyria

    Important
    It is possible that the main title of the report Variegate Porphyria is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

    Synonyms

    • VP
    • porphyria variegata

    Disorder Subdivisions

    • None

    General Discussion

    Variegate porphyria is a rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by deficient function of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO or PPOX). This deficiency is caused by heterozygous mutations in the PPOX gene, and leads to the accumulation of certain chemicals called porphyrins and porphyrin precursors in the body, which, in turn, can potentially result in a variety of symptoms. Specific symptoms can vary greatly from one person to another. Some affected individuals present with skin symptoms, some with neurological symptoms and some with both. Blistering and fragility of sun-exposed skin are the most common skin (cutaneous) symptoms. Common neurological symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, extremity pain and weakness, anxiety, restlessness and convulsions. Many different PPOX mutations have been identified in different families with variegate porphyria. The genetic mutation in a family is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, but many individuals who inherit a PPOX mutation do not develop any symptoms (asymptomatic).

    Variegate porphyria is one of a group of disorders known as the porphyrias. The porphyrias are characterized by abnormally high levels of porphyrins or porphyrin precursors in the body. Each porphyria is due to a deficiency of a different enzyme. There are eight enzymes in the pathway for making heme, which is a part of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. There are at least eight types of porphyria. The symptoms associated with the various types of porphyria differ, depending upon the specific enzyme that is deficient. It is important to note that people who have one type of porphyria do not develop any of the other types. Porphyrias are generally classified into two groups: the "hepatic" and "erythropoietic" types. Porphyrins and porphyrin precursors originate in excess amounts from the liver in the hepatic types, and mostly from the bone marrow in the erythropoietic types. Variegate porphyria is a hepatic form of porphyria.

    Protoporphyrinogen and coproporphyrinogen accumulate in the liver in variegate porphyria because PPOX is deficient, and become oxidized to protoporphyrin and coproporphyrin, which are transported in the blood plasma and cause the skin to be sensitive to sunlight. The neurological symptoms are associated with accumulation of porphyrin precursors, namely delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG).

    Resources

    CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)
    Climb Building
    176 Nantwich Road
    Crewe, CW2 6BG
    United Kingdom
    Tel: 4408452412173
    Fax: 4408452412174
    Email: enquiries@climb.org.uk
    Internet: http://www.CLIMB.org.uk

    American Porphyria Foundation
    4900 Woodway, Suite 780
    Houston, TX 77056-1837
    Tel: (713)266-9617
    Fax: (713)840-9552
    Tel: (866)273-3635
    Email: porphyrus@aol.com
    Internet: http://www.porphyriafoundation.com

    NIH/National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive & Kidney Diseases
    Office of Communications & Public Liaison
    Bldg 31, Rm 9A06
    31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
    Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
    Tel: (301)496-3583
    Email: NDDIC@info.niddk.nih.gov
    Internet: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/

    MedicAlert Foundation International
    2323 Colorado Avenue
    Turlock, CA 95382
    USA
    Tel: (209)669-2401
    Fax: (209)669-2456
    Tel: (888)633-4298
    Email: Inquiries@medicalert.org
    Internet: http://www.medicalert.org

    British Porphyria Association
    136 Devonshire Rd
    Durham City, DH1 2BL
    United Kingdom
    Tel: 01474369231
    Email: helpline@porphyria.org.uk
    Internet: http://www.porphyria.org.uk

    Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
    PO Box 8126
    Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
    Tel: (301)251-4925
    Fax: (301)251-4911
    Tel: (888)205-2311
    TDD: (888)205-3223
    Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

    For a Complete Report:

    This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

    The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

    It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

    This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

    For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

    Last Updated: 3/20/2013
    Copyright 1987, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001, 2010, 2013 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

    WebMD Medical Reference from the National Organization for Rare Disorders

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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