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Valley Fever

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Topic Overview

What is valley fever?

Valley fever is a disease caused by a fungus that gets into your body through your lungs. It can make you feel like you have a cold or the flu and may cause a rash. Most people get better without treatment.

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But if your body’s natural defense system (immune system) is weak, valley fever can be deadly. In rare cases it can be deadly even for people with a normal immune system. Valley fever can spread from your lungs to other parts of your body. Those at higher risk for severe illness include people with AIDS, pregnant women, people who take medicines that weaken the immune system, and people with diabetes. Filipinos, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans also have a higher risk.

Valley fever occurs in dry desert areas of the southwestern United States, central California, and Mexico. It also occurs in dry areas of Central and South America.

Valley fever is also called desert fever, San Joaquin Valley fever, coccidioidomycosis, and desert rheumatism.

What causes valley fever?

You can get valley fever if you breathe in the fungus that causes the disease.

The fungus grows in the soil. It gets into the air when the ground is broken and the dirt and dust spread into the air. People with jobs that require digging in the soil have the greatest chance of getting valley fever. This includes people who work on farms, in construction, and in archeology or paleontology. People who ride bikes or drive all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the desert also have a higher chance of getting it. Dust storms can spread the fungus into the air, so other people can also get valley fever.

Valley fever is not contagious. You cannot get it from another person or from animals.

After getting better, most people will not get valley fever again. This is called being immune. But valley fever can come back again in people who have weak immune systems and can't fight infection. This includes people who have AIDS, are taking medicine that suppresses the immune system (such as prednisone or methotrexate), or have had an organ transplant.

What are the symptoms?

Most people don't have any symptoms, or they have only very mild symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may feel like you have a cold or the flu. You may have a fever, chills, chest pain, a dry cough, and a rash.

The time from contact with the fungus until symptoms start is usually 1 to 3 weeks. This is called the incubation period.

In rare cases, valley fever can spread to the skin, bones, lymph nodes, and organs. It can lead to meningitis, a very serious infection of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord.

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WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: November 03, 2011
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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