Skip to content

    Cirrhosis Complications: Variceal Bleeding

    Font Size
    A
    A
    A

    Topic Overview

    In people who have cirrhosis, high blood pressure in the veins that carry blood from the intestines to the liver (portal hypertension) causes many problems. One serious complication of portal hypertension is variceal bleeding.

    When blood pressure increases in the portal vein system, veins in the esophagus, stomach, and rectum enlarge to accommodate blocked blood flow through the liver. The presence of enlarged veins (varices) usually causes no symptoms. (They may be found during an endoscopy exam of the esophagus.) About 50 to 60 out of 100 people who have cirrhosis develop varices in the esophagus.1

    Recommended Related to Hepatitis

    The Connection Between Hepatitis C and Autoimmune Disorders

    Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in a minority of patients. This means that the liver cells are damaged not only by the virus but also by the body's own immune system. AIH triggers the body to attack its liver cells as if the liver cells were harmful foreign substances. Patients with a combination of HCV and autoimmune hepatitis may suffer from more debilitating symptoms than patients with HCV alone. Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with other...

    Read the The Connection Between Hepatitis C and Autoimmune Disorders article > >

    As the blood pressure in the portal vein system continues to increase, the walls of these expanded veins become thinner, causing the veins to rupture and bleed. This is called variceal bleeding.

    • The more severe the liver damage and the larger the varices, the greater your risk is for variceal bleeding.
    • Of the people who develop varices, about 30 out of 100 have an episode of bleeding within 2 years of the diagnosis of varices.2

    Variceal bleeding can be a life-threatening emergency. After varices have bled once, there is a high risk of bleeding again. The chance of bleeding again is highest right after the first bleed stops and gradually goes down over the next 6 weeks. If varices are not treated, bleeding can lead to death.

    Treatment for variceal bleeding can be challenging and may include medicines as well as endoscopic therapy (endoscopic banding or sclerotherapy). For more information, see:

    The American College of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic screening for varices for anyone who has been diagnosed with cirrhosis. If your first test does not find any varices, you can be tested again in 2 to 3 years.2 You may need more frequent testing if you have large varices or have already had an episode of variceal bleeding, even if you are treated for your varices with beta-blockers or variceal banding. Recurrent bleeding is common.

    1

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: November 14, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
    Next Article:

    Cirrhosis Complications: Variceal Bleeding Topics

    Hot Topics

    WebMD Video: Now Playing

    Click here to wach video: Dirty Truth About Hand Washing

    Which sex is the worst about washing up? Why is it so important? We’ve got the dirty truth on how and when to wash your hands.

    Click here to watch video: Dirty Truth About Hand Washing

    Popular Slideshows & Tools on WebMD

    disciplining a boy
    Types, symptoms, causes.
    fruit drinks
    Eat these to think better.
    Balding man in mirror
    Treatments & solutions.
    No gym workout
    Moves to help control blood sugar.
    Remember your finger
    Are you getting more forgetful?
    acupuncture needle on shoulder
    10 tips to look and feel good.
    Close up of eye
    12 reasons you're distracted.
    birth control pills
    Which kind is right for you?
    embarrassed woman
    Do you feel guilty after eating?
    woman biting a big ice cube
    Habits that wreck your teeth.
    pacemaker next to xray
    Treatment options.
    Pink badge on woman chest to support breat cancer
    Myths and facts.

    Women's Health Newsletter

    Find out what women really need.