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West Nile Virus

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  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). West Nile virus: What you need to know. Available online:

Other Works Consulted

  • American Public Health Association (2004). Other mosquito-borne and culicoides-borne fevers: Bunyamwera viral fever, Rift Valley fever, West Nile fever (including Kunjin viral fever), Group C virus disease, Oropouche virus disease, Zika virus disease. In DL Heymann, ed., Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 18th ed., pp. 45-48. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). West Nile virus, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Available online:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). West Nile virus: What you need to know. Available online:

  • Kanzaria HK, Hsia RY (2012). Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. In PS Auerbach, ed., Wilderness Medicine, 6th ed., pp. 883-900. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

  • Vaughn DW, et al. (2010). Flaviviruses (yellow fever, dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis). In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2133-2156. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

  • Watson JT, et al. (2004). Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile fever. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(5): 360-365.


WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: November 14, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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