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ADHD in Children Health Center

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ADHD, Food Dyes, and Additives

WebMD Feature
Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari, MD

Are you thinking about cutting dyes and other additives from your child’s diet to try to improve ADHD symptoms?

It can be a challenge. Will it work? Will your child even eat the foods that are part of his new diet? Before you give it a try, you should know a few things about the link between food colorings and ADHD.

A Link Isn't Clear

The possible link dates back to the early 1970s, when San Francisco pediatrician and allergist Benjamin Feingold noted that hyperactive kids calmed down when they didn't eat any artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives.

Since then, several studies have tried to confirm the link. What they've found is that although dyes don't cause ADHD, a small percentage of kids with ADHD do seem to be sensitive to the effects of food dyes and other additives.

There are still questions. So far, most studies have been based on small numbers of children: in some cases, just 10 or 20 kids. Also, many of the children ate foods that had both dyes and other additives, making it hard to find the exact cause of their behaviors.

Researchers also aren’t sure exactly how artificial food colorings might affect ADHD symptoms. It could be that these substances affect children's brains. Or some kids may be hypersensitive, having a kind of allergic reaction to dyes and additives, says Joel Nigg, PhD, professor of psychiatry, pediatrics, and behavioral neuroscience at Oregon Health & Science University and author of What Causes ADHD? Many of the kids who are sensitive to dyes are also sensitive to other foods, like milk, wheat, and eggs.

Additives vs. Medications

Some parents say they have seen an improvement after cutting food dyes and other additives from their children's diet.

The eating plan Nigg found to have the greatest effect on ADHD symptoms is the one Feingold introduced decades ago. It removes all artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives.

It doesn't seem to work as well as medication. When Nigg looked at studies done on similar diets, he found that cutting out these additives worked one-third to one-sixth as well as taking medications.

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