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Classes for Parents May Help Tots at Risk for ADHD

Programs try to promote positive relationship between parent and child

WebMD News from HealthDay

By Serena Gordon

HealthDay Reporter

MONDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- Parent behavior training is an effective and well-studied intervention for preschoolers at risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new review shows.

Such programs seek to promote a positive relationship between the parent and child, and to teach effective discipline strategies that rely on rewards and non-punitive consequences.

"When we looked at studies with children with a cluster of disruptive behaviors, parent behavior training is a good strong intervention for behaviors like hyperactivity, impulsivity, temper tantrums and oppositional behavior," said review author Dr. Alice Charach, head of the neuropsychiatry team at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

The drug methylphenidate (Ritalin, Methylin) may also be effective in this age group, although there was only one study that met the review's standards, and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines don't recommend medication for ADHD in preschool-age youngsters.

Results of the review were published online April 1 and in the May print issue of Pediatrics.

Diagnosing ADHD in preschool-aged children is possible, but it can be difficult, according to study background information. "Kids that age can be very busy and inattentive and distractible. It's sometimes hard to have them do what they're supposed to do," Charach said. Parents may initially ask their doctor to evaluate their child because the kids have more disruptive, oppositional behaviors, she noted.

Once kids are diagnosed or found to be at high risk of developing ADHD, the most effective intervention hasn't been clear.

To get a better idea of what might work best in these young children, the researchers reviewed the medical literature for studies on interventions for children younger than 6 who had behavior disruptive enough to be referred to treatment, or a diagnosis of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder or a conduct disorder.

They found 55 studies that matched their initial criteria, and then they further reviewed the studies to assess factors such as sample size and study design. They found eight good studies on parent behavior training, and one study they considered good on medication.

The four parent interventions studied in this review were: the Positive Parenting Program, Incredible Years Parenting Program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the New Forest Parenting Program.

Interventions that focus on changing parental behavior may seem like the blame is being placed on parents for their child's behavior. But, Charach said, that's not the case at all.

"Some kids are more challenging and need extra skills and extra support from their parents. And, this may not come naturally. We learn how to parent from our own parents. If a child isn't like us, we might not know what to do," she explained.

The researchers found that when parents completed the entire course, their children's behavior improved more.

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