Kids With ADHD, Aggression May Benefit From 2nd Med
Modest improvements in violent behavior noted with addition of antipsychotic drug
By Brenda Goodman
THURSDAY, Jan. 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who also are extremely aggressive might benefit from taking an antipsychotic drug along with their stimulant medication, a new study suggests.
Prescribing powerful antipsychotic medications to children with behavioral problems is controversial. Little is known about the long-term safety of these medications, which are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. And previous studies have provided little evidence to support the idea that they help quell youngsters' violent outbursts.
But the new study, which was published online in the January issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, suggests there might be some merit to the idea, at least for severely troubled kids.
The study looked at a subset of children with ADHD who also are physically violent, meaning they're either destructive or aggressive toward themselves or others, the researchers said.
"The children who participated in this trial had far more significant behavioral issues than the typical child with ADHD alone," said study author Michael Aman, director of clinical trials at Ohio State University's Nisonger Center.
"These are children who are really in conflict with their communities and their families," Aman said. "They seem to be in a spiral they can't get out of."
The 168 children in the study were between 6 and 12 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder or conduct disorder. All had displayed recent episodes of serious physical aggression in which they destroyed property or, at a minimum, left bruises on themselves or others.
All were started on a stimulant medication -- typically long-acting methylphenidate (sold under the brand name Concerta), which is a common treatment for ADHD. Their parents got special training in how to manage impulsive behaviors.
After three weeks, those who had not been helped enough by the basic measures were allowed to start a second medication, which was assigned at the start of the study. Sixty-one kids who started the second medication took the antipsychotic risperidone (Risperdal) for six more weeks, while 69 children continued basic treatment and got an added placebo pill.
After nine weeks, children who took Risperdal in addition to their stimulant medication saw modest but significant improvements in behavior compared to those who continued on the stimulant by itself.
"I don't think it's a grand slam, but I do think it indicates that there is some justification for what doctors have begun to do, which is to combine treatment," Aman said.
Aman said the average improvement on Risperdal was moderate. "Buried in that moderate are kids who did much better, kids who did somewhat better and some kids who didn't do better at all," he said.