Allergies affect more than 50 million people in the United States -- the poor souls who sniffle, sneeze, and get all clogged up when face to face with the allergen (or allergens) that set them off.
For many, allergies are seasonal and mild, requiring nothing more than getting extra tissue or taking a decongestant occasionally. For others, the allergy is to a known food, and as long as they avoid the food, no problem.
Larissa Stouffer of Melrose, Mass., usually sneezes not once, not twice, but
three times. She sneezes as she gets into a car if it's sunny outside, but not
when it's cloudy; her dad does the same thing. And as soon as she pops some
mint chewing gum into her mouth, out comes an achoo.
Stouffer, 30, isn't the only one with a fickle nose. Many people sneeze at
peculiar moments -- such as after exercise, plucking their eyebrows, in the
sunshine, or after sex.
Here are the reasons why they sneeze...
But for legions of others adults, allergies are so severe it interferes with their quality of life. The allergens -- whatever it is that sets off the symptoms -- may affect them more severely than others and may be harder to avoid.
Defining "severe" allergies, and pinpointing how many people are affected, is difficult even for allergists.
"When we say severe, we mean the allergies basically cause severe enough symptoms that they are interfering with life," says Paul V. Williams, MD, a staff allergist at Northwest Asthma & Allergy Center, Mount Vernon, Wash.
That means, for instance, having to take sick days to cope with symptoms so severe you can't work, or not being able to go outside on a day with a high pollen count, if that's your primary allergen.
If your allergies are this severe, you know who you are. And experts offer these three strategies for coping.
Allergy Strategy 1: Know Your Allergens
The top environmental allergens, Williams and other allergists tell WebMD, are:
"It's most common to be allergic to multiple things," Williams says, "but not necessarily all of them." Some people, however, are highly allergic to just one allergen, such as cat dander.
Whatever the allergen, it can trigger nasal symptoms, eye irritation and stinging, skin diseases or asthma, says Williams.
Sometimes it's clear what your allergen is. If you visit a house with a cat, for instance, and start to have symptoms, you know. If it's hay fever season and your nose starts running when you go outdoors, you know.
But if you can't figure out what the offending allergen is, you can ask for skin tests. A doctor will place a tiny bit of the suspected allergen under your skin and watch for a reaction. The doctor should then be sure that your symptoms match the allergen he used, Williams tells WebMD.
Allergy Strategy 2: Control Your Allergens
Once you know your target, you can start to eliminate or control it.
Controlling Animal Dander
Lovable as household pets may be, they can create big problems for people with allergies, says Michael M. Miller, MD, associate professor of medicine at the University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Knoxville.
The offending allergen is a protein found in the saliva, dead skin scales (called dander) or the urine of an animal with fur, including dogs and cats, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The protein, when airborne, can land in the eyes or nose or be inhaled into the lungs.