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Food Allergy Treatments

Medication continued...


Drug NameAlbuterol (Proventil, Ventolin)
DescriptionCommon bronchodilator used in clinical medicine.
Adult Dose2.5-5 mg (0.5 mL of 5% solution diluted to a final volume of 3 mL with 0.9% saline) nebulized over 5-15 min q20min, not to exceed 6 doses; also available in unit dose vials (3 mL of 0.083% solution) for nebulization
Pediatric DoseAdminister as in adults
ContraindicationsDocumented hypersensitivity
InteractionsBeta-adrenergic blockers antagonize effects; inhaled ipratropium may increase duration of bronchodilatation by albuterol; cardiovascular effects may increase with MAOIs, inhaled anesthetics, TCAs, and sympathomimetic agents
PregnancyC - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established.
PrecautionsCaution in hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disorders; avoid excessive use with cardiac disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, seizure disorders, labor, and delivery; not recommended for nursing mothers


Drug NameMetaproterenol (Alupent, Dey-Dose, Prometa)
DescriptionBeta2-adrenergic agonist that relaxes bronchial smooth muscle with little effect on heart rate.
Adult Dose0.3 mL of 5% solution diluted in 2.5 mL of 0.45% or 0.9% normal saline nebulized over 5-15 min q4h
Pediatric Dose0.1-0.2 mL of 5% solution diluted in 3 mL of 0.45% or 0.9% normal saline nebulized over 5-15 min q4h
ContraindicationsDocumented hypersensitivity; arrhythmia associated with tachycardia
InteractionsDecreases effect of beta-receptor blockers; increases toxicity of MAOIs, TCAs, and sympathomimetics
PregnancyC - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established.
PrecautionsCaution in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, congestive heart failure, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, and seizures; not recommended for nursing mothers; adverse reactions include tachycardia, headache, nervousness, dizziness, tremor, gastrointestinal upset, hypertension, paradoxical bronchospasm, and cough


Drug NameTheophylline (Aquaphyllin, Aminophyllin)
DescriptionPotentiates exogenous catecholamines and stimulates endogenous catecholamine release and diaphragmatic muscular relaxation, which, in turn, stimulates bronchodilation.
Adult Dose5-6 mg/kg IV loading dose in 20 mL D5W over 10-15 min, followed by a maintenance dose of 0.5-1 mg/kg/h
Pediatric DoseNot established
ContraindicationsDocumented hypersensitivity; uncontrolled arrhythmias, peptic ulcers, hyperthyroidism, and uncontrolled seizure disorders
InteractionsAminoglutethimide, barbiturates, carbamazepine, ketoconazole, loop diuretics, charcoal, hydantoins, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin, isoniazid, and sympathomimetics may decrease effects; effects may increase with allopurinol, beta-blockers, ciprofloxacin, corticosteroids, disulfiram, quinolones, thyroid hormones, ephedrine, carbamazepine, cimetidine, erythromycin, macrolides, propranolol, and interferon
PregnancyC - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established.
PrecautionsCaution in peptic ulcer, hypertension, tachyarrhythmias, hyperthyroidism, and compromised cardiac function; do not inject IV solution >25 mg/min; patients with pulmonary edema or liver dysfunction are at greater risk of toxicity because of reduced drug clearance



Drug Category: Corticosteroids


Ameliorate delayed effects of anaphylactoid reactions and may limit biphasic anaphylaxis. In severe cases of serum sickness, parenteral steroids may be beneficial to reduce inflammatory effects of this immune complex–mediated disease.

Drug NameMethylprednisolone (Medrol, Adlone, Solu-Medrol)
DescriptionFor treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions. By reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity, may decrease inflammation.
Adult Dose60-80 mg IV for 1 dose; then q6h
Pediatric Dose1-2 mg/kg/dose IV q6h; not to exceed 60-80 mg
ContraindicationsDocumented hypersensitivity; viral, fungal, or tubercular infections
InteractionsCoadministration with digoxin may increase digitalis toxicity secondary to hypokalemia; estrogens may increase levels; phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampin may decrease levels (adjust dose); monitor patients for hypokalemia when taking medication concurrently with diuretics
PregnancyC - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established.
PrecautionsHyperglycemia, edema, osteonecrosis, peptic ulcer disease, hypokalemia, osteoporosis, euphoria, psychosis, growth suppression, myopathy, and infections are possible complications of glucocorticoid use

WebMD Medical Reference from eMedicineHealth

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