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Alzheimer's Disease Health Center

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Coping with Memory Loss

What Can Cause Memory Loss?

Anything that affects cognition--the process of thinking, learning, and remembering--can affect memory. Doctors use a combination of strategies to gain better insight into what's going on, says Ranjit Mani, M.D., a neurologist and medical reviewer in the Food and Drug Administration's Division of Neurology Products. Doctors evaluate memory loss by taking a medical history, asking questions to test mental ability, conducting a physical and neurological examination, and performing blood and urine tests. Brain imaging, using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. "The goal is to rule out factors that are potentially reversible and determine if the memory loss is due to a more serious brain disease," Mani says.

Causes of memory loss, some of which can occur together, include the following:

  • Medications. Examples of medications that can interfere with memory include over-the-counter and prescription sleeping pills, over-the-counter antihistamines, anti-anxiety medications, antidepressants, some medications used to treat schizophrenia, and pain medicines used after surgery.
  • Alcohol and illicit drug use. Heavy alcohol use can cause deficiencies in vitamin B1 (thiamine), which can harm memory. Both alcohol and illicit drugs can change chemicals in the brain that affect memory.
  • Stress. Stress, particularly due to emotional trauma, can cause memory loss. In rare, extreme cases, a condition called psychogenic amnesia can result. "This can cause someone to wander around lost, unable to remember their name or date of birth or other basic information," Mani says. "It usually resolves on its own."
  • Depression. Depression, which is common with aging, causes a lack of attention and focus that can affect memory. "Usually treating the depression will improve mood and the memory problems may then also improve," Mani says.
  • Head injury. A blow to the head can cause a loss of consciousness and memory loss. "Memory loss from head trauma typically stays the same or gradually gets better, but not worse," Mani says.
  • Infections. People with HIV, tuberculosis, syphilis, herpes, and other infections of the lining or substance of the brain may experience memory problems.
  • Thyroid dysfunction. An underactive or overactive thyroid can interfere with remembering recent events.
  • Sleep deprivation. Lack of quality sleep--whether from stress, insomnia, or sleep apnea--can affect memory.
  • Nutritional deficiencies. Deficiencies of vitamins B1 and B12 can affect memory. Such deficiencies can be treated with a pill or an injection.
  • Normal aging. As part of the normal aging process, it can be harder for some people to recall some types of information, such as the names of individuals.
  • Mild cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition characterized by a memory deficit beyond that expected for age, which is not sufficient to impair day-to-day activities.
  • Dementia. Dementia is a term used for a condition in which there is increasing impairment of memory and other aspects of thinking that are sufficiently severe to impair day-to-day activities. There are many causes of dementia, but the most common by far is Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which there is a progressive loss of brain cells accompanied by other abnormalities of the brain. A diagnosis of AD is made by confirming that a patient has dementia and by excluding other conditions such as brain tumors, vitamin deficiencies, and hypothyroidism.

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