Health care providers throughout the United States are making a concerted effort to improve hospice care and palliative treatment in terminally ill patients with Alzheimer's disease. Palliative care is treatment designed to relieve or reduce the intensity of uncomfortable symptoms without trying to cure the underlying disease.
Palliative treatment may involve the use of medicines or surgery to control symptoms such as pain, nausea, and shortness of breath. The primary care doctor will help guide...
Acetylcholine: A chemical in the brain, called a neurotransmitter, that appears to be involved in learning and memory. Acetylcholine is greatly diminished in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease.
Activities of daily living (ADL): Activities that are necessary for everyday living and functioning, such as eating, bathing, grooming, dressing, and using the toilet.
Adjuvant therapy: Treatment provided in addition to the primary treatment.
Adult day services: Programs that provide participants with opportunities to interact with others, usually in a community center or dedicated facility. People come and go from the center on a daily basis.
Advance directive (living will): A document written and signed when in "good" health that informs your family and health care providers of your wishes about extended medical treatment in times of emergency.
Adverse reaction: An unexpected effect of drug treatment that may range from minor to serious to life-threatening, such as an allergic reaction.
Aggression: Hitting, pushing, or threatening behavior that may occur when a caregiver tries to help an Alzheimer's patient with daily activities, such as grooming and dressing.
Agitation: Behavior, such as screaming, shouting, complaining, moaning, cursing, pacing, fidgeting, wandering, etc., that is disruptive, unsafe, or interferes with the delivery of care in a particular environment.
Alternative therapies: The use of techniques other than drugs, surgery, or other conventional therapies to treat disease and manage long-term pain. Some common alternative therapies, also called complementary therapies, include the use of herbs, meditation, exercise, magnets, reflexology, massage, and acupuncture.
Alzheimer's disease: A progressive disease in which nerve cells in the brain become damaged and brain matter shrinks, resulting in impaired thinking, behavior, and memory.
Ambulation: The ability to walk and move about freely.
Amyloid: A protein deposit associated with tissue damage and breakdown. Amyloid is found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
Amyloid plaque: Abnormal clusters of dead and dying nerve cells, other brain cells, and amyloid protein fragments.
Antidepressants: Medications used to treat depression. Antidepressants are not addictive; they do not make you "high" or produce a craving for more.
Antibodies: Specialized proteins produced by the cells of the immune system that counteract specific foreign substances.
Anti-inflammatory drugs: Drugs that reduce inflammation or swelling.
Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, fear, nervousness, or dread accompanied by restlessness or tension.
Apathy: Lack of interest, concern, or emotion.
Aphasia: Difficulty understanding the speech of others and/or expressing oneself verbally.
Art therapy: A form of therapy that allows people with dementia to express their feelings creatively through art.
Assessment: An evaluation, usually performed by a doctor, of a person's mental, emotional, and social capabilities.