What are panic attacks and panic disorder?
A panic attack is a sudden, intense fear or anxiety that may make you short of breath or dizzy or make your heart pound. You may feel out of control. Some people believe that they are having a heart attack or are about to die. An attack usually lasts from 5 to 20 minutes. But it may last even longer, up to a few hours. You have the most anxiety about 10 minutes after the attack starts. If these attacks happen often, they are called a panic disorder.
Panic attacks can be scary and so bad that they get in the way of your daily activities. Treatment can help most people have fewer symptoms or even stop the attacks.
More women than men get panic attacks.
What causes panic attacks and panic disorder?
Experts aren't sure what causes panic attacks and panic disorder. But the body has a natural response when you are stressed or in danger. It speeds up your heart, makes you breathe faster, and gives you a burst of energy. This is called the fight-or-flight response. It gets you ready to either cope with or run away from danger. A panic attack occurs when this response happens when there is no danger.
Panic attacks and panic disorder may be caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals or a family history of panic disorder. They sometimes happen with no clear cause.
Panic attacks may also be brought on by:
- A health problem such as an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), or heart or breathing problems.
- Depression or another mood disorder.
- Alcohol abuse.
- Using too much nicotine or too much caffeine.
- Taking certain medicines, such as those used to treat asthma and heart problems.
- Using illegal drugs, such as marijuana or cocaine.
- Living with high levels of stress for a long time.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of a panic attack may include:
Symptoms of panic disorder may include:
- Repeated panic attacks when there is no reason for the fight-or-flight response.
- Changing your daily activities because you worry that you will have another attack.
Some people have a fear of being in crowds, standing in line, or going into shopping malls. They are afraid of having another panic attack or of not being able to escape. This problem is called agoraphobia. It can be so bad for some people that they never leave their homes.
People who have panic disorder often have depression at the same time.
How are panic attacks and panic disorder diagnosed?
Your doctor will ask about your past health and do a physical exam. The exam may include listening to your heart, checking your blood pressure, and ordering blood tests to look for other causes of your problem.
How are they treated?
Treatment for panic attacks and panic disorder includes counseling, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Medicines may also help. Treatment can help most people control or even stop attacks. But symptoms can come back, especially if you stop treatment too soon.
Frequently Asked Questions
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