Post-traumatic stress disorder -- or PTSD -- is a condition in which one's life has been guided or dictated by an actual or perceived severe traumatic experience of the past.
PTSD is classified as:
Acute stress disorder: symptoms occurring within four weeks of the trauma.
Acute PTSD: symptoms lasting three months or less.
Delayed onset PTSD: symptoms appear six months after the trauma.
Chronic PTSD: symptoms lasting more than three months.
Someone who has experienced severe...
There are also rating scales, such as the as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), that not only can quantify the initial degree and severity of OCD, but also demonstrate progress of treatment by repeating the scoring after several months of treatment.
What Are the Treatments for OCD?
Not every person with OCD responds to the same treatment. Treatment options include drug treatment as well as behavioral treatments. People with OCD should discuss treatment strategies with their therapists. For most people, a combination of these treatments works best.
Recent studies show that drugs that affect a specific brain chemical -- serotonin -- are particularly helpful in OCD. These include a class of drugs originally developed as antidepressants: the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. SSRIs approved by the FDA for treatment of OCD include Prozac, Zoloft, Luvox, and Paxil. Other SSRIs may also be used.
While these drugs offer at least a little help for most people with OCD, they aren't a cure. When a person stops taking them, OCD symptoms often come back. Other medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, aripiprazole or quetiapine, may be used to supplement the SSRIs to help control symptoms.
Anafranil (clomipramine), also approved by the FDA for the treatment of OCD, is a tricyclic agent (TCA), an older class of antidepressants. Drugs that are FDA-approved first-line treatments for OCD include Luvox (fluvoxamine), Anafranil (clomipramine), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil).
Traditional psychotherapy aims to help a person develop insight into his or her problems. The specific type of psychotherapy that has been best-studied to treat OCD is called cognitive therapy, which involves restructuring thought patterns about obsessions and compulsions. Behavioral treatments for OCD also include exposure therapy with response prevention, in which patients are gradually exposed in a controlled environment to situations that cause anxiety. Techniques are learned to reduce anxiety and resist urges to act on compulsions.