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Asthma and Other Allergic Reactions

Inhaled mold spores and particles from bird droppings and feathers (such as from parrots) can cause allergic reactions in the airways and lungs. For example, when the fungus Aspergillus causes an allergic reaction in the airways, the condition is called allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Affected individuals usually have asthma. Treatment involves opening the airways with bronchodilators and decreasing inflammation with steroids over a prolonged period of time. When the lung tissues develop an allergic reaction to inhaled bacteria, fungi, or bird particles, the condition is called hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This condition is differentiated from acute asthma by the lack of wheezing, the presence of a fever, and the pattern of pneumonia on the chest X-ray. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is treated by avoiding the allergens and taking steroids.

Exercise-Induced Asthma

Exercise is a common trigger for asthma and may cause symptoms such as chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing in 80% to 90% of people with asthma. The asthma symptoms usually start about 10 minutes into the exercise or 5 to 10 minutes after completing the activity, although some people experience symptoms about four to eight hours after exercise. Exercise-induced asthma may affect all ages, but it's most common in kids with childhood asthma and young adults. All athletes, from weekend warriors to professionals and Olympians, can be affected by exercise-induced asthma.

For most asthma patients, exercise-induced asthma is treatable and preventable, allowing children and adults with asthma to fully participate in sports and exercise. Regular exercise is beneficial for the heart, circulatory system, muscles (including breathing muscles), and mental health. However, regular exercise is not a cure for asthma.

Exercise-induced asthma is diagnosed by a pattern of asthmatic symptoms prompted by exercise. When the diagnosis is unclear, it can be confirmed in a doctor's office by performing breathing tests at rest and after exercise.

Health Conditions That May Worsen Asthma

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

GERD is a common condition caused by the regurgitation (reflux) or backwash of stomach acid into the esophagus from the stomach. At times, the acid even may regurgitate into the back of the throat and reach the lungs. GERD usually -- but not always -- is associated with a burning discomfort under the breastbone, called heartburn, which occurs mostly after meals or when lying down. In some people the symptom of acid reflux is not heartburn. Instead, they experience coughing, wheezing, hoarseness, or sore throat.

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