We all know about the importance of prenatal medical care in assuring the health of a pregnant woman and her baby. But most experts now recommend that women start seeing an obstetrician before they become pregnant for something called pre-pregnancy or preconception care.
It may seem excessive -- after all, why start worrying before you're pregnant? But a doctor can help even at an early stage. He or she may run tests to make sure that you and your partner don't have any hidden illnesses that could affect your pregnancy or your chances of becoming pregnant. Your doctor can also give you advice about exercise, eating, lifestyle and folic acid supplement. Some studies show that preconception care can increase your chances of becoming pregnant and reduce the risks of miscarriage or birth defects.
If you are infertile, your doctor will go over your health history, medications, sexual history, and your sex habits, like how often you have sex.
Men will get a physical exam and often a sperm analysis, which tests the health of his sperm.
For women, testing begins with a medical history and physical exam, including a pelvic exam. The doctor then makes sure that she ovulates regularly and her ovaries are releasing the eggs. Blood tests are taken to measure hormone levels. The ovaries and uterus...
Your doctor will want to start a pre-pregnancy checkup by getting a full medical history from both you and your partner. He or she may also want to run a number of tests -- such as blood tests and a Pap smear -- to make sure that neither of you have any medical conditions that could affect pregnancy or your chances of conceiving. Your doctor might test for illnesses such as:
Rubella, or German measles immunity
Hepatitis B immunity
Other STDs (such as chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea)
Thyroid problems (with a TSH test)
Other conditions, such as toxoplasmosis and parvovirus B19 (also called fifth disease)
Finally, depending on your ethnicity, your doctor may recommend genetic tests for:
Sickle cell anemia
Thalassemia (an inherited form of anemia)
Genetic diseases common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, such as Tay-Sachs disease
If it's time for you to update your vaccines, it's important to do so before you are pregnant. A few specific vaccinations, such as the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), varicella (the virus that causes chickenpox), or hepatitis A vaccines increase the risk of birth defects. Experts advise that you wait at least 28 days after receiving some of these vaccinations before trying to conceive.
Managing Diseases in Pre-Pregnancy
If you have an existing medical condition, such as epilepsy, high blood pressure, asthma, diabetes or a thyroud disorder, it's especially important to seek out medical care before getting pregnant. Not only is it crucial to keep these illnesses under control during your pregnancy for both your and your baby's sake, but some common medications used to treat these conditions -- such as certain high blood pressure and anti-seizuredrugs -- can have an adverse affect on your pregnancy. If this is true of a medication that you're currently using, your doctor may be able to suggest a substitute. Prior to conception, you and your doctor will need to discuss all medications you are taking, including any over the counter medications.