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    Kids and Petting Zoos

    Simple Steps Can Prevent Infections at Petting Zoos

    E. Coli Symptoms continued...

    Because animals carrying E. coli 0157:H7 -- typically cattle -- generally don't show any signs of illness, it is impossible for parents to tell if an animal is infected just by looking at it, says Bhushan Jayarao, MVSc, PhD, MPH, an extension veterinarian with the department of veterinary science at Pennsylvania State University.

    Nor is wide-scale testing for the bacteria always effective or feasible. "Most of these petting zoos are small, family-run operations. Testing is expensive and not always available," says Jayarao.

    Besides, an animal that tests clean one week may become infected the next, giving a false sense of security.

    "No petting zoo or farm can guarantee the bacteria isn't there. Parents should assume that there is a risk and follow safety precautions," he says.

    While the E. coli outbreak has justifiably concerned parents, it needn't scare them away, Jayarao says. Protecting your kids from E. coli 0157:H7, or any other organism found in a farm environment -- such as Salmonella, Cryptosporidia, and Listeria -- is largely a matter of following some simple safety rules, he says:

    • Wash hands. One of the simplest precautions parents can take is to be sure kids wash their hands with hot, soapy water after touching the animals or animal enclosures. Wet hands, apply soap, lather for at least 20 seconds, paying extra attention to crevices and under fingernails, then rinse. If hand-washing facilities are not immediately available, antibacterial gel hand sanitizers can do the trick.
    • Keep hands out of mouths. If a child is too young to understand this -- younger than six years old -- parents should accompany the child at all times while at the zoo. Very young children should probably be carried as an extra precaution, says Jayarao. Older children can be instructed not to kiss the animals or touch their own eyes, noses, or mouths after petting the animals. And don't forget to warn against nail-biting and thumb-sucking, two other possible ways to become infected.
    • Keep food and animals separate. Jayarao recommends stopping to eat and drink before going to the petting zoo rather than doing so during or after.
    • "Children should definitely not wander around in the pens with ice cream or crackers," he says. And if the children are feeding the animals, make sure they are old enough to understand they should not share the treats.
    • Bring a change of clothes. It's easy to forget that a jacket can become contaminated when a child leans on a railing, or that shoelaces dragging in the mud can transport bacteria back home, says Venso. The safest bet is to have the children change their clothes after petting the animals, not to be worn again until they have been washed in hot, soapy water.
    • Don't be a poo-bearer. It's obvious, but not to be overlooked. Make sure children understand the importance of avoiding animal manure. Because E. coli and other dangerous organisms can be shed in animal feces -- where they can remain active for long periods of time -- it is especially important to avoid contact with these substances, says Venso.
    • Ask about hygiene. Make sure the animals and the petting areas are clean and well kept. If there are a lot of animal droppings in the petting area, or if the animals appear excessively dirty, it's best not to visit. "Even with the best hygiene practices, these organisms may still be present," says Jayarao. But if the situation looks unsafe, don't take chances.
    • Watch for symptoms. If your child does become ill soon after visiting a petting zoo or farm, call a doctor, says Jayarao. This can save valuable time in making a diagnosis. Pay close attention to any possible signs of infection for a week or so after your trip.

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