Pregnancy and Miscarriage
A miscarriage is the loss of a baby before the 20th week of pregnancy.
According to the March of Dimes, as many as 50% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage -- most often before a woman misses a menstrual period or even knows she is pregnant. About 15% of recognized pregnancies will end in a miscarriage.
More than 80% of miscarriages occur within the first three months of pregnancy. They are less likely to occur after 20 weeks' gestation; if they do, they are called late miscarriages.
What Are the Symptoms of Miscarriage?
Symptoms of a miscarriage include:
If you're pregnant and experience the symptoms listed above, contact your obstetric health care provider right away. He or she will tell you to come in to the office or go to the emergency room.
What Causes Miscarriage?
The medical term for a miscarriage is spontaneous abortion, but the condition is not an abortion in the common definition of that term.
The causes of miscarriage are not well understood. Most of the miscarriages that occur in the first trimester of pregnancy are caused by chromosomal abnormalities in the baby. Chromosomes are tiny structures inside the cells of the body which carry many genes. Genes determine all of a person's physical attributes, such as sex, hair and eye color, and blood type. Most chromosomal problems occur by chance and are not related to the mother's or father's health.
Miscarriages are also caused by a variety of other factors, including:
In addition, women may be at increased risk for miscarriage as they age. Studies show that the risk of miscarriage is 12% to 15% for women in their 20s, and rises to about 25% for women at age 40. The increased incidence of chromosomal abnormalities contributes to the age-related risk of miscarriage.
Note: There is no proof that stress or physical or sexual activity causes miscarriage.
Sometimes, treatment of a mother's chronic illness can improve the chances for a successful pregnancy.