Ideally for labor, the baby presents head-down, facing the mother's back, with its chin tucked to its chest and the back of the head ready to enter the pelvis.
Occiput or Cephalic Posterior
Sometimes the baby is presenting head down as it should be, but it is facing the mother's abdomen. This increases the chance of painful "back labor" and prolonged delivery.
In a frank breech, the baby's buttocks lead the way into the birth canal. The hips are flexed, the knees extended. This increases the chance of forming an umbilical cord loop that could precede the head through the cervix and cause injury to the baby if it is delivered vaginally.
This baby presents with the buttocks first; both the hips and the knees are flexed. Like other breech presentations, this increases the risk of forming an umbilical cord loop that could precede the head through the cervix and cause injury to the baby if it is delivered vaginally.
The baby lies crosswise in the uterus, making it likely that the shoulder will enter the pelvis first. Most such babies are delivered by cesarean.
Sometimes, one or both of the baby's feet are pointed down toward the birth canal. This increases the chances of the umbilical cord slithering down into the mouth of the womb, cutting off blood supply to the baby.
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