Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Health & Pregnancy

Font Size

The 'Bottom Line' on Spanking

Corporal Punishment Increases Risk of Aggression, Other Negative Behaviors; Experts Disagree
WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

June 27, 2002 -- Spanking may work in the short term to get children to change negative behaviors, but the long-term consequences can include increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, and delinquency, according to a review of 62 years' worth of corporal punishment studies.

Spanking was linked to one positive outcome and 10 negative ones in the analysis of 88 studies conducted by Columbia University psychologist Elizabeth Gershoff, PhD. The strongest and most immediate consequence was getting children to stop the misbehavior that prompted the physical punishment. But weaker associations were suggested for spanking and such outcomes as a failure to learn right from wrong and subsequent criminal behavior, mental illness, and child or spouse abuse as adults.

"This research shows that spanking carries a risk for all these outcomes," Gershoff tells WebMD. "It doesn't mean that they will happen. But is it worth the risk when there are so many other techniques parents can use that we know are effective, which don't have this problem of long-term negative side effects?"

Gershoff says 27 of the studies she reviewed found that children who are spanked tend to be more physically aggressive to other children. None found spanking to be linked to less aggressive behaviors, but the researcher acknowledges there is no way to tell whether physical punishment causes aggressiveness or whether naturally aggressive kids are just spanked more.

"We would have to go back to infancy to figure out where this ... problem really begins, and nobody has done that research," she says.

The analysis appears in the July issue of Psychological Bulletin, a publication of the American Psychological Association. It was accompanied by a commentary from three other psychologists who wrote that Gershoff's research "does not justify a blanket injunction against mild to moderate corporal punishment."

The commentary argues there is no scientific proof that detrimental outcomes are caused by physical punishment by a parent. And they suggest the analysis does not reflect the impact of normal spanking because more than half of the studies included overly severe forms of corporal punishment, such as slapping in the face or hitting with an object.

Pregnancy Week-By-Week Newsletter

Delivered right to your inbox, get pictures and facts on
what to expect each week of your pregnancy.

Today on WebMD

hand circling date on calendar
Track your most fertile days.
woman looking at ultrasound
Week-by-week pregnancy guide.
Pretty pregnant woman timing contaction pains
The signs to watch out for.
pregnant woman in hospital
Are there ways to do it naturally?
slideshow fetal development
pregnancy first trimester warning signs
What Causes Bipolar
Woman trying on dress in store
pregnant woman
Woman looking at pregnancy test
calendar and baby buggy
dark chocolate squares