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Miscarriage - References


  1. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2010). Research on Miscarriage and Stillbirth. Available online:

  2. Kleinhaus K, et al. (2006). Paternal age and spontaneous abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 108(2): 369–377.

  3. Cunningham FG, et al. (2010). Abortion. In Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed., pp. 215–237. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  4. Sotiriadis A, et al. (2004). Threatened miscarriage: Evaluation and management. BMJ, 329(7458): 152–155.

  5. Haas DM, Ramsey PS (2008). Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2).

Other Works Consulted

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2011). Antiphospholipid syndrome. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 118. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117(1): 192–199.

  • Dempsey A, Davis A (2008). Medical management of early pregnancy failure: How to treat and what to expect. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 26(5): 401–410.

  • Duckitt K, Qureshi A (2011). Recurrent miscarriage, search date January 2010. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online:

  • Levens ED, et al. (2010). Ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 16, chap. 6. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.

  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2010). Research on Miscarriage and Stillbirth. Available online:

  • Porter TF, et al. (2008). Early pregnancy loss. In RS Gibbs et al., eds., Danforth's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10th ed., pp. 62–70. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: November 14, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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