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Miscarriage - References


  1. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2010). Research on Miscarriage and Stillbirth. Available online:

  2. Kleinhaus K, et al. (2006). Paternal age and spontaneous abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 108(2): 369-377.

  3. Cunningham FG, et al. (2010). Abortion. In Williams Obstetrics, 23rd ed., pp. 215-237. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  4. Sotiriadis A, et al. (2004). Threatened miscarriage: Evaluation and management. BMJ, 329(7458): 152-155.

  5. Haas DM, Ramsey PS (2008). Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2).

Other Works Consulted

  • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2011). Antiphospholipid syndrome. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 118. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 117(1): 192-199.

  • Dempsey A, Davis A (2008). Medical management of early pregnancy failure: How to treat and what to expect. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 26(5): 401-410.

  • Duckitt K, Qureshi A (2011). Recurrent miscarriage, search date January 2010. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online:

  • Levens ED, et al. (2010). Ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 16, chap. 6. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.

  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2010). Research on Miscarriage and Stillbirth. Available online:

  • Porter TF, et al. (2008). Early pregnancy loss. In RS Gibbs et al., eds., Danforth's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10th ed., pp. 62-70. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: November 14, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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