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    Education and Counseling to Prevent Low Back Pain

    References continued...

    4. Nachemson AL. Prevention of chronic back pain: the orthopaedic challenge for the 80's. Bull Hosp Joint Dis Orthop Inst 1984;44:1-15.

    5. McElligott J, Miscovich SJ, Fielding LP. Low back injury in industry: the value of a recovery program. Conn Med 1989;53:711-715.

    6. Nordin M, Weiser S, Halpern N. Education: the prevention and treatment of low back disorders. In: Frymoyer JW, ed. The adult spine and practice. New York:Raven Press;1991:1641-1654.

    7. Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Bigos SJ. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:598-603.

    8. Anderson GBJ, Pope MH, Frymoyer JW, et al. Epidemiology and cost. In: Pope MH, Anderson GBJ, Frymoyer JW, et al., eds. Occupational low back pain. St. Louis, MO:Mosby-Year Book,1991:95-113.

    9. McCaig LF. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1992 emergency department summary. Advance data from vital and health statistics; no 245. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1994.

    10. McCaig LF. Outpatient department summary: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1992. Advance data from vital and health statistics; no 248. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1994.

    11. Schappert SM. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1992 summary. Advance data from vital and health statistics; no 253. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1994.

    12. Mitchell LV, Lawler FH, Bowen D, et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of employer-issued back belts in areas of high risk for back injury. J Occup Med 1994;36:90-94.

    13. Dwyer AP. Backache and its prevention. Clin Orthop 1987;222:35-43.

    14. Cunningham LS, Kelsey JL. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal impairments and associated disability. Am J Public Health 1984;74:574-579.

    15. Nachemson A. Work for all; for those with low back pain as well. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1983;179:77-85.

    16. Liles DH. Using NIOSH lift guide decreases risk of back injuries. Occup Health Safety 1985;54:57-60.

    17. Frymoyer JW, Mooney V. Current concepts review: occupational orthopaedics. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68:469.

    18. Haag AB. Ergonomic standards, guidelines, and strategies for prevention of back injury. Occup Med 1992;7:155-165.

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