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    Education and Counseling to Prevent Low Back Pain

    References continued...

    19. Venning PJ, Walter SD, Stitt LW. Personal and job-related factors as determinants of incidence of back injuries among nursing personnel. J Occup Med 1987;29:820-825.

    20. Behrens V, Seligman P, Cameron L, et al. The prevalence of back pain, hand discomfort, and dermatitis in the US working population. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1780-1785.

    21. Deyo RA, Bass JE. Lifestyle and low-back pain; the influence of smoking and obesity. Spine 1989;14:501-506.

    22. Walsh NE, Schwartz RK. The influence of prophylactic orthoses on abdominal strength and low back injury in the workplace. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990;69:245-250.

    23. Leino PI. Does leisure time physical activity prevent low back disorders? A prospective study of metal industry employees. Spine 1993;18:863-871.

    24. Gyntelberg F. One year incidence of low back pain among male residents of Copenhagen aged 40-59. Dan Med Bull 1974;21:30-36.

    25. Pope MH, Bevins T, Wilder DG, et al. The relationship between anthropometric, postural, muscular, and mobility characteristics of males ages 18-55. Spine 1985;10:644-648.

    26. Cady L, Bischoff DP, O'Connell ER, et al. Strength and fitness and subsequent back injuries in firefighters. J Occup Med 1979;21:269-272.

    27. Cady L, Thomas P, Karwasky R. Program for increasing health and physical fitness of firefighters. J Occup Med 1985;27:110-114.

    28. Biering-Sorensen F. Physical measurements as risk indicators for low back trouble over a one year period. Spine 1984;9:106-119.

    29. Battié M, Bigos S, Fisher L, et al. Isometric lifting strength as a predictor of industrial back pain complaints. Spine 1989;14:851-856.

    30. Battié M, Bigos S, Fisher L, et al. A prospective study of the role of cardiovascular risk factors and fitness in industrial back pain complaints. Spine 1989;14:141-147.

    31. Battié M, Bigos S, Fisher L, et al. The role of spinal flexibility in back pain complaints within industry, a prospective study. Spine 1990;15:768-773.

    32. Leino P, Aro S, Hasan J. Trunk muscle function and low back disorders: a ten-year follow-up study. J Chronic Dis 1987;40:289-296.

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