Skip to content

Back Pain Health Center

Font Size

Upper and Middle Back Pain - References


  1. Esses SI, et al. (2011). The treatment of symptomatic osteoporotic spinal compression fractures. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 19(3): 176-182. Also available online:

  2. McIntosh G, Hall H (2011). Low back pain (acute), search date December 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence:

Other Works Consulted

  • Hanson TJ (2008). Thoracic compression fracture. In WR Frontera et al., eds., Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2nd ed., pp. 213-217. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

  • Mercier LR (2008). The back. In Practical Orthopedics, 6th ed., pp. 143-184. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: 0/, 014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    Woman holding lower back
    Or is it another form of back pain?
    Hand on back
    See the myths vs. the facts.
    Woman doing pilates
    Good and bad exercises.
    acupuncture needles in woman's back
    Use it to manage your pain.
    Man with enhanced spinal column, rear view
    pain in brain and nerves
    Chronic Pain Healtcheck
    Health Check
    break at desk
    Woman holding lower back
    Weight Loss Surgery
    lumbar spine
    back pain