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Upper and Middle Back Pain - References

Citations

  1. Esses SI, et al. (2011). The treatment of symptomatic osteoporotic spinal compression fractures. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 19(3): 176–182. Also available online: http://www.aaos.org/research/guidelines/guide.asp.

  2. McIntosh G, Hall H (2011). Low back pain (acute), search date December 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.

Other Works Consulted

  • Hanson TJ (2008). Thoracic compression fracture. In WR Frontera et al., eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2nd ed., pp. 213–217. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

  • Mercier LR (2008). The back. In Practical Orthopedics, 6th ed., pp. 143–184. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: November 19, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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