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Stay Busy, Stay Happy

Happiest People Shun Idleness, Keep Busy With Tasks, Study Finds

Benefits of Keeping Busy

Study author Christopher K. Hsee, PhD, of the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business, says in a news release that it may be possible to use this principle to benefit society.

“If we can devise a mechanism for idle people to engage in activity that is at least not harmful, I think it is better than destructive 'busyness,'" he says.

Incentives seem to work, because “people dread idleness, and their professed reasons for activity may be mere justifications for keeping busy,” he and fellow authors Adelle X. Yang, also of the University of Chicago, and Liangyan Wang, of Shanghai Jiaotong University, write in the study.

In general, people will, when given a choice, choose to do things that will keep them busy, the authors say.

“The idea that people desire justification for busyness is rooted in the general finding that people are rational animals and seek to base their decisions on reasons,” the researchers write. “It is silly to exert effort without purpose.”

“It seems that people know that busyness yields happiness, but if they lack justification for busyness, they will choose idleness,” the researchers say. This reflects the desire of people to base decisions on rules and reasons, the researchers say.

Historical Look at Busyness

The experiments were repeated in another context. Students were given a bracelet and given 15 minutes during which they could either do nothing or disassemble it and put it back together.

Some were told that if they disassembled the bracelet, they had to put it back together in the original design. Others were told that if they took the bracelet apart, they had to reassemble it into a different design.

Most students told they had to reassemble the bracelet in its original design chose to sit idly. Most told they had to reassemble it in a different way chose to stay busy.

Again, those who reassembled the bracelet reported greater happiness.

The findings “reinforced our proposition that humans concurrently desire both busyness and a justification for busyness,” the researchers say.

Such decisions, they write, are rooted in evolution, because expending energy throughout the ages without reason could jeopardize survival.

“In Greek mythology, Sisyphus’ punishment, imposed by Zeus, was to eternally roll a rock toward the top of a hill, never to arrive there,” the authors write. “Our research suggests that Sisyphus was better off with his punishment than he would have been with a punishment of an eternity of doing nothing, and that he might have chosen rolling a rock over idleness if he had been given a slight reason for doing so.”

The study is published in the August issue of the journal Psychological Science.

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