No one's mood is stable 100% of the time. It's normal to feel down when you hit a rough patch and elated when life goes your way.
But if you have bipolar disorder, the highs and lows are a lot more extreme, and they can sometimes seem random. The good news is that with treatment and some hard work, you can control the impact this disease has on your life.
Bipolar I disorder (pronounced "bipolar one" and also known as manic-depressive disorder or manic depression) is a form of mental illness. A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life.
Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. Often, there is a pattern of cycling between mania and depression...
Doctors aren’t sure what causes this condition, which is also called manic depression. It could have to do with brain structure -- the pathways or circuits that control mood, behavior, and thinking. Or it could be brain chemistry. It’s likely genetic, since it often runs in families. Anyone can get bipolar disorder at any age, but most people show symptoms before the age of 25.
Bipolar disorder is generally known for two opposite phases: depression and mania. During a depressed period, you may feel sad, hopeless, and worthless. You might even think about suicide.
Manic periods (hypomania or mania), which tend to happen less often than depressed ones, involve unusual bursts of energy.
What’s the difference between being happy and manic? "You'll feel much more energetic than you do at your baseline, have racing thoughts, talk louder and faster than normal, and notice a decreased need for sleep," says Joseph Calabrese, MD. He's the director of the mood disorders program at Case Western Reserve University.
Also, your judgment will be off. "People do things quickly without thinking about the consequences," Calabrese says. For example, you might spend too much money, have impulsive sex, or get into trouble with the law. During full-blown mania, you could have feelings that you’re better or more important than other people. You may even hear and see things that aren't there.
How to Get Help
About 10 million Americans have bipolar disorder, but many don't know it. "Between 20 and 40 percent of people with bipolar disorder are not properly diagnosed or not diagnosed at all," Calabrese says.
Why? Most people don’t seek help unless they're feeling down. "Bipolar disorder can get missed if a person starts with a depressive episode," says Ken Duckworth, MD. He's the medical director of NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, and an assistant clinical professor at Harvard University Medical School.