No one's mood is stable 100% of the time. It's normal to feel down when you hit a rough patch and elated when life goes your way.
But if you have bipolar disorder, the highs and lows are a lot more extreme, and they can sometimes seem random. The good news is that with treatment and some hard work, you can control the impact this disease has on your life.
Ongoing treatment -- both psychotherapy and medication -- is essential to controlling the mood swings of bipolar disorder. How can family members help their loved one stick with treatment?
"Learn as much as you can about the disease," says Kay Redfield Jamison, PhD, professor of psychiatry at John Hopkins University School of Medicine and author of An Unquiet Mind. "Read and read some more. Join support groups. You'll get emotional support and information you need."
Also, learn to watch for early...
Doctors aren’t sure what causes this condition, which is also called manic depression. It could have to do with brain structure -- the pathways or circuits that control mood, behavior, and thinking. Or it could be brain chemistry. It’s likely genetic, since it often runs in families. Anyone can get bipolar disorder at any age, but most people show symptoms before the age of 25.
Bipolar disorder is generally known for two opposite phases: depression and mania. During a depressed period, you may feel sad, hopeless, and worthless. You might even think about suicide.
Manic periods (hypomania or mania), which tend to happen less often than depressed ones, involve unusual bursts of energy.
What’s the difference between being happy and manic? "You'll feel much more energetic than you do at your baseline, have racing thoughts, talk louder and faster than normal, and notice a decreased need for sleep," says Joseph Calabrese, MD. He's the director of the mood disorders program at Case Western Reserve University.
Also, your judgment will be off. "People do things quickly without thinking about the consequences," Calabrese says. For example, you might spend too much money, have impulsive sex, or get into trouble with the law. During full-blown mania, you could have feelings that you’re better or more important than other people. You may even hear and see things that aren't there.
How to Get Help
About 10 million Americans have bipolar disorder, but many don't know it. "Between 20 and 40 percent of people with bipolar disorder are not properly diagnosed or not diagnosed at all," Calabrese says.
Why? Most people don’t seek help unless they're feeling down. "Bipolar disorder can get missed if a person starts with a depressive episode," says Ken Duckworth, MD. He's the medical director of NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, and an assistant clinical professor at Harvard University Medical School.