Bipolar disorder symptoms include dramatic shifts in mood and the ability to function. Successful bipolar disorder treatment requires a careful course of medication, psychotherapy, and discipline to stay on track--and avoid an emotional crash
Most teens spend their time discussing their latest crush with friends,
studying for college admission tests, and taking driver's education. Not Robin
Molliner. When the 26-year-old California native was 16, she was busy trying to
talk car dealers into selling her a new ride -- even though she didn't have a
dime to her name -- and staging a two-week walkout from her high school
chemistry class because she wasn't "happy with the level of the
But what seemed like normally high levels of energy and ambition were just
the beginning of the full-blown mania that quickly followed.
The bipolar spectrum is a term used to refer to conditions of many people with depression, substance abuse, and a wide range of other psychiatric conditions who also have some symptoms of bipolar disorder. Although they have these similar symptoms, they are not diagnosed with bipolar disorder as it is commonly defined. Some psychiatrists find the concept useful. But since it has not been rigorously studied it hasn't been widely adopted.
"I wanted to have sex with anything, I didn't care who or what," she
recalls. "I felt like my mom was trying to hurt me, and I had feelings of
being a prophet."
At the time, "I would go from moments of being totally happy, bubbly,
and having fun to moments when pain from every point in life would come
exploding out and I would lose control," she says.
As a result of these symptoms and the depression that
followed, Molliner was diagnosed with bipolar
disorder. Affecting more than 2 million American adults, this
illness brings dramatic shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function.
Just about everyone has ups and downs from time to time, but for people like
Molliner, these changes can be severe. Moods range from ecstatic or irritable
to sad and hopeless -- often with extended periods of normalcy in between.
Manic episodes may mean increased energy, euphoria, and an unrealistic belief
in one's abilities. People with bipolar disorder may go on lavish spending
sprees. They may also have hallucinations (such as hearing voices) and
delusional thoughts, as Molliner did about her mother.
Onset typically occurs in late adolescence, as it did with Molliner, or
early adulthood. But some people develop symptoms later in life and still
others start showing them during childhood. The illness affects children and
teens differently from the way it affects adults, according to results from the
Course and Outcome of Bipolar Illness in Youth (COBY) research program. The
very young develop symptoms that last longer and swing more swiftly from
hyperactivity and recklessness to lethargy and depression, the study
While the exact cause of bipolar disorder is not known, most researchers say
that it is the result of a chemical imbalance in certain parts of the brain.
And some evidence suggests that individuals may have a genetic predisposition
to the illness. More than two-thirds of people with bipolar disorder have at
least one close relative with the disorder or with unipolar major depression.
True to form, Molliner has two uncles and a grandfather with the disorder.
disorder can't be cured but is typically treated with medication,
psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes. Doctors often treat the mania symptoms
with one set of drugs, and use other drugs to treat the depression.
Maintenance treatment with a mood stabilizer such as lithium or an
anticonvulsant drug can substantially reduce the number and severity of
episodes for most people, but this can be a tough pill to swallow.