Skip to content

    Autism Spectrum Disorders Health Center

    Font Size
    A
    A
    A

    Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    You've probably heard of autism, but what is Asperger's syndrome?
    By
    WebMD Feature

    You might remember Dustin Hoffman's powerful portrayal of an adult with autism in the movie Rain Man. Even if he gave you some idea of what it's like to be autistic, you probably have never heard about the many forms autism takes -- or about Asperger's syndrome (AS), one of two main types of autism that often goes unrecognized until late in childhood, or is even missed through adulthood.

    Like with classic autism, children with Asperger's syndrome -- which is getting recognized more frequently later in life now -- often find themselves disconnected from others, seemingly in their own world. While researchers have yet to understand what causes AS, there is likely a genetic component. Some folks with Asperger's syndrome obsess over unusual things, and communication can be a great challenge. People with Asperger's syndrome are at times especially talented in a certain area, even brilliant, but that's not typical. "It depends who you talk to, but it's a fairly low number of cases," says Bobby Newman, PhD, BCBA, the president-elect for the Association for the Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT).

    Recommended Related to Autism

    This Exit, No Return

    Advocacy begins with an assumption that if a number of community members are suffering, then there must be something wrong, not with the individual members, but with the community as a whole; therefore, the community must be changed to help alleviate that suffering (Kahn 1997, 109). Advocacy creates a platform for change by allowing individuals to begin the process of improvement through finding their voice and believing their voice can produce change. Advocacy is essential for parents to address...

    Read the This Exit, No Return article > >

    Asperger's syndrome is less about having extraordinary talents, and more about having difficulties with three main areas that Newman says are required for you to get diagnosed with any form of autism: socialization, communication, and behavior range. The symptoms of autism would also have to be present, even if missed, within the first 3 years of life, according to the diagnostic manual.

    What Makes Asperger's Syndrome Different

    There are two main differences between classic autism and Asperger's syndrome, according to Simon Baron-Cohen, the co-director of the Autism Research Centre in Cambridge, England. First, folks with autism tend to have a language delay or start talking later in life, and they also have a below average IQ. People with Asperger's syndrome tend to have an average or above average IQ, and they start speaking within the expected age range.

    "I think depression may be more of a problem with AS. People with classic autism may be much more focused on their own private world, and unaware of what they are missing out on," Baron-Cohen says. People with Asperger's syndrome might be more aware of what they are not achieving socially.

    1 | 2 | 3 | 4

    Today on WebMD

    girl at window
    Symptoms within the first 2 years of a child’s life.
    boy playing a violin
    Where do they fall on the spectrum?
     
    Mother and daughter indoors playing
    Play therapy may undo the disorder in at-risk babies.
    preschool age girl sitting at desk
    What causes this rare condition?
     
    High Functioning Autism And Asperge Syndrome
    Article
    Gluten Free Diet Slideshow
    Article
     
    Mother and daughter indoors playing
    Article
    man on bicycle
    VIDEO
     
    girl at window
    Article
    Mother hugging teenage son
    Article
     
    Understanding Rett Syndrome
    Article
    Home Care Tips
    Article
     

    WebMD Special Sections