Advocacy begins with an assumption that if a number of community members are suffering, then there must be something wrong, not with the individual members, but with the community as a whole; therefore, the community must be changed to help alleviate that suffering (Kahn 1997, 109). Advocacy creates a platform for change by allowing individuals to begin the process of improvement through finding their voice and believing their voice can produce change. Advocacy is essential for parents to address...
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, or PDD, a group of developmental disorders that involve delays in the development of many basic skills. The most notable delay with autism is the ability to socialize or form relationships with others. With autism, there's also a delay in the ability to communicate and to use imagination (including fantasy play).
The exact cause of autism is not known, but research has pointed to several possible factors, including genetics (heredity), metabolic and neurological factors, certain types of infections, and problems during pregnancy and at birth. A supposed connection between childhood vaccines and autism has been well discredited by several wide-ranging studies.
Although it affects four times as many boys as girls, autism knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle, or educational levels do not affect a child's chance of having autism.
While most people with autism will always have some trouble relating to others, early diagnosis and treatment have helped more and more people with autism to live independently as adults.
What Are the Symptoms of Autism?
Some children show symptoms of autism from birth. Others seem to develop normally at first, only to slip suddenly into symptoms when they are 18 to 36 months old.
Children with autism can display a wide range of symptoms, which can vary in severity from mild to disabling. Autism symptoms typically appear before a child is 3 years old and last throughout a lifetime. General symptoms that may be present to some degree in a child with autism include:
Difficulty with verbal communication, including problems using and understanding language
Inability to participate in a conversation, even when the child has the ability to speak
Difficulty with non-verbal communication, such as gestures and facial expressions
Difficulty with social interaction, including relating to people and to his or her surroundings
Little or no eye contact, including sometimes the child acting as if he or she can’t see who or what is in front of the child, despite normal visual testing
Unresponsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf, although hearing tests in normal range
Inability to make friends; prefers to play alone
Unusual ways of playing with toys and other objects, such as only lining them up a certain way
Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or familiar surroundings, or an unreasonable insistence on following routines in detail
Repetitive body movements, or patterns of behavior, such as hand flapping, spinning, and head banging
Preoccupation with unusual objects or parts of objects
People with a form of autism called savantism have exceptional skills in specific areas such as music, art, and numbers. People with savantism are able to perform these skills without lessons or practice.