Antidepressants in Pregnancy Not Linked to Autism
Large study finds little connection between mother's use of drugs like Prozac and children's autism risk
By Amy Norton
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 18, 2013 (HealthDay News) -- Despite some concerns to the contrary, children whose moms used antidepressants during pregnancy do not appear to be at increased risk of autism, a large new Danish study suggests.
The results, published Dec. 19 in the New England Journal of Medicine, offer some reassurance, experts said.
There have been some hints that antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could be linked to autism. SSRIs are the "first-line" drug against depression, and include medications such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa) and paroxetine (Paxil).
In one recent U.S. study, mothers' SSRI use during pregnancy was tied to a twofold increase in the odds that her child would have autism. A Swedish study saw a similar pattern, though the risk linked to the drugs was smaller.
But both studies included only small numbers of children who had autism and were exposed to antidepressants in the womb.
The new study is "the largest to date" to look at the issue, using records for more than 600,000 children born in Denmark, said lead researcher Anders Hviid, of the Statens Serum Institute in Copenhagen.
And overall, his team found, there was no clear link between SSRI use during pregnancy and children's autism risk.
Hviid cautioned that the finding is still based on a small number of children who had autism and prenatal exposure to an SSRI -- 52, to be exact. The researchers noted that it's not possible to rule out a small increase in autism risk.
But, Hviid said, "at this point, I do not think this potential association should feature prominently when evaluating the risks and benefits of SSRI use in pregnancy."
Commenting on the findings, Christina Chambers, director of the Center for the Promotion of Maternal Health and Infant Development at the University of California, San Diego, stated, "I think this study is reassuring."
One "important" point, Chambers added, is that the researchers factored in mothers' mental health diagnoses -- which ranged from depression to eating disorders to schizophrenia.
"How much of the risk is related to the medication, and how much is related to the underlying condition?" Chambers said. "It's hard to tease out."
In theory, she noted, depression or other mental health disorders could contribute to autism risk because those moms may be more likely to make unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking or drinking.
In this study, Hviid's team did initially see a slightly increased risk of autism among children whose mothers used SSRIs during pregnancy. But once the researchers factored in the psychiatric disorders themselves, that statistical link fell away.
On top of that, there was a slight increase in autism risk among children whose mothers had used an SSRI in the two years before pregnancy, but not during pregnancy.