Meningitis Rate Is Dropping in U.S.
CDC Researchers Say Pneumococcal Vaccine Is Helping to Lower Meningitis Rate
Biggest Drop Occurred in Babies
CDC researchers analyzed bacterial meningitis incidence data between 1998 and 2007, concluding that about 4,100 cases and 500 deaths occurred annually between 2003 and 2007.
Among the other findings:
- Bacterial meningitis declined by 31% during the survey period, down from about two cases per 100,000 people in 1999 to 1.4 cases per 100,000 people in 2007.
- The average age of bacterial meningitis patients increased from about 30 to 42 during the period.
- The death rate did not decline significantly: roughly 16% of patients with bacterial meningitis in 1999 died, compared to 14% of patients in 2007.
- Among children 2 to 23 months old, incidence declined from close to 10 cases per 100,000 in 1999 to less than four in 2007.
"With the success of pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines in reducing the risk of meningitis among young children, the burden of bacterial meningitis is now borne more by older adults," the CDC report notes.
Infectious disease specialist William Schaffner, MD, of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn., says experimental vaccines now in the pipeline may lower incidence even further among infants and children in the future.
"With the average age of people with meningitis rising, the next challenge will be to prevent it from occurring in adults, particularly seniors," he tells WebMD.
College-Bound Teens Need Booster
There are also concerns that vaccines targeting meningococcal meningitis may not be protecting teens at a particularly vulnerable time -- when they enter college.
Meningococcal meningitis is the form of the disease most often associated with outbreaks in colleges.
Last fall, a federal vaccine advisory committee recommended that 16-year-olds be given booster doses of the vaccine due to concerns that immunity from immunization at age 11 or 12 does not last into the college years.
The recommendation was somewhat controversial, but Schaffner says a booster shot is a good idea for teens entering college.
"This is a horrific disease that can kill quickly," he says. "As a doctor who has treated young people with bacterial meningitis, I wouldn't hesitate to recommend a booster vaccine to prevent it."