Even Mild Hits to the Head Might Harm the Brain, Study Finds
Athletes who weren't diagnosed with concussions still showed thinking deficits after a season of hits
By Maureen Salamon
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 11, 2013 (HealthDay News) -- As more research focuses on the damage concussions can cause, scientists now report that even mild blows to the head might affect memory and thinking.
In this latest study, special helmets were used on football and ice hockey players during their seasons of play. None of the players were diagnosed with a concussion during the study period, but the special helmets recorded key data whenever the players received milder blows to the head.
"The accelerometers in the helmets allowed us to count and quantify the intensity and frequency of impacts," said study author Dr. Tom McAllister. "We thought it might result in some interesting insights."
The researchers found that the extent of change in the brain's white matter was greater in those who performed worse than expected on tests of memory and learning. White matter transports messages between different parts of the brain.
"This suggests that concussion is not the only thing we need to pay attention to," said McAllister, chairman of the department of psychiatry at the Indiana University School of Medicine. "These athletes didn't have a concussion diagnosis in the year we studied them ... and there is a subsample of them who are perhaps more vulnerable to impact. We need to learn more about how long these changes last and whether the changes are permanent."
The study was published online Dec. 11 in the journal Neurology.
Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries that occur from a sudden blow to the head or body. Symptoms include headache, blurry vision and difficulty sleeping or thinking clearly. Research on repetitive brain impacts not associated with diagnosed concussions is sparse and contradictory, the researchers said.
McAllister, who conducted the research while affiliated with Dartmouth College, compared 80 concussion-free varsity football and ice hockey players wearing specialized helmets to 79 athletes in noncontact sports. He evaluated them before and after the season with brain scans and learning and memory tests.
A total of 20 percent of the contact-sport players and 11 percent of the noncontact athletes performed worse on a test of verbal learning and memory at the end of the season, a decline expected in less than 7 percent of a normal population, McAllister said. Those performing worse exhibited more changes in the corpus callosum region of the brain -- a bundle of nerves connecting the left and right sides of the brain -- than athletes who scored as predicted.