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    Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

    It is possible that the main title of the report Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.


    • arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (RARS2)
    • cerebellar atrophy with progressive microcephaly, (CLAM)
    • encephalopathy, fatal infantile, with olivopontocerebellar hyperplasia
    • fetal-onset olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia
    • olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia, fetal-onset
    • PCH with optic atrophy
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1 (PCH1)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2A (PCH2A)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2B (PCH2B)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2C (PCH2C)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 3 (PCH3)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 4 (PCH4)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 5 (PCH 5)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 6 (PCH6)
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia with anterior horn cell disease
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia with infantile spinal muscular atrophy
    • pontocerebellar hypoplasia with progressive cerebral atrophy
    • volendam neurodegenerative disease

    Disorder Subdivisions

    • None

    General Discussion

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH) are a group of rare heterogeneous conditions characterized by prenatal development of an abnormally small cerebellum and brain stem, which is usually associated with profound psychomotor retardation. Although the clinical features vary widely, pontocerebellar hypoplasias are usually associated with profound intellectual disability and delayed or absent psychomotor milestones. In most cases, the disease is uniformly fatal early in life. Life span has ranged from death in the perinatal period to about 20-25 years of age. Only a few individuals-usually patients with PCH type 2-have survived to the second and third decades of life. At least 6 types of PCH have been described and a few rare variants are now being identified.


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    Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
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    Fetal Hope Foundation
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    Littleton, CO 80127
    Tel: (303)932-0553
    Tel: (877)789-4673

    For a Complete Report:

    This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

    The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

    It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

    This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

    For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site or email

    Last Updated: 3/16/2012
    Copyright 2009, 2012 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

    WebMD Medical Reference from the National Organization for Rare Disorders

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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