Once a pituitary tumor has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if it has spread within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) or to other parts of the body.
The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. There is no standard staging system for pituitary tumors. Once a pituitary tumor is found, tests are done to find out if the tumor has spread into the brain or to other parts of the body. The following test may be used:
MRI (magnetic resonance...
Simple vocal tics involve
simple sounds made by moving air through the nose or mouth. Simple vocal tics
Grunting, barking, and
Sniffing, snorting, or throat-clearing.
Complex vocal tics involve
more complex sounds, including words, phrases, and sentences. A person who has
a complex motor tic may talk to him or herself, repeat his or her own words
(palilalia) or other people's words (echolalia), or use obscene words
(coprolalia). Complex vocal tics may interrupt the smooth flow of a normal
conversation or occur at the beginning of a sentence, much like a stutter or a
stammer. Complex vocal tics include statements such as:
"Yeah, that's right."
Types of motor tics:
Simple motor tics involve
only one muscle group. They can be embarrassing or painful (such as jaw
snapping). Simple motor tics include:
Complex motor tics can be a
combination of many simple motor tics or a series of movements that involve
more than one muscle group. Complex motor tics are slower and often appear as
if the person is making the movements intentionally. Complex motor tics can
interfere greatly with daily activities and may be self-destructive (such as
head-banging or lip-biting). Examples include:
Obscene gesturing or gyrating
Skipping, hopping, or twirling.
Primary Medical Reviewer
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics
Specialist Medical Reviewer
Karin M. Lindholm, DO - Neurology
July 26, 2011
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
July 26, 2011
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