Breast Cancer and Osteoporosis
The Impact of Breast Cancer
The National Cancer Institute reports that 1 in 8 women in the
United States (approximately 13 percent) will develop breast cancer in her
lifetime. In fact, next to skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common type
of cancer among U.S. women.
While the exact cause of breast cancer is not known, the risk
of developing it increases with age. The risk is particularly high in women
over the age of 60. Because of their age, these women are already at increased
risk for osteoporosis. Given the rising incidence of breast cancer and the
improvement of long-term survival rates, bone health and fracture prevention
have become important health issues among breast cancer survivors.
Facts About Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become less
dense and more likely to fracture. Fractures from osteoporosis can result in
significant pain and disability. It is a major health threat for an estimated
44 million Americans, 68 percent of whom are women.
Risk factors for developing osteoporosis include:
- being thin or having a small frame
- having a family history of the disease
- for women, being postmenopausal, having an early menopause, or not having
menstrual periods (amenorrhea)
- using certain medications, such as glucocorticoids
- not getting enough calcium
- not getting enough physical activity
- drinking too much alcohol.
Osteoporosis is a silent disease that can often be prevented.
However, if undetected, it can progress for many years without symptoms until a
fracture occurs. It has been called “a pediatric disease with geriatric
consequences” because building healthy bones in one’s youth is important to
help prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life.
The Breast Cancer – Osteoporosis Link
Women who have had breast cancer treatment may be at increased
risk for osteoporosis and fracture for several reasons. First, estrogen has a
protective effect on bone, and reduced levels of the hormone trigger bone loss.
Because of chemotherapy or surgery, many breast cancer survivors experience a
loss of ovarian function, and consequently, a drop in estrogen levels. Women
who were premenopausal prior to their cancer treatment tend to go through
menopause earlier than those who have not had the disease.
Studies also suggest that chemotherapy may have a direct
negative effect on bone. In addition, the breast cancer itself may stimulate
the production of osteoclasts, the cells that break down bone.
Osteoporosis Management Strategies
Several strategies can reduce one’s risk for osteoporosis or
lessen the effects of the disease in women who have already been diagnosed.
Nutrition: Some studies have found a link
between diet and breast cancer. However, it is not yet clear which foods or
supplements may play a role in reducing breast cancer risk. As far as bone
health is concerned, a well-balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is
important. Good sources of calcium include low-fat dairy products; dark green,
leafy vegetables; and calcium-fortified foods and beverages. Also, supplements
can help ensure that the calcium requirement is met each day. The Institute of
Medicine recommends a daily calcium intake of 1,000 mg (milligrams) for men and
women between the ages of 19 and 50, increasing to 1,200 mg for those over