Breast Cancer (BRCA) Gene Test
A breast cancer (BRCA) gene test is a
blood test to check your chance of developing
breast cancer and
ovarian cancer. Test results may take several
Normal (called negative)
No changes were found in
the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
A negative result and your overall
family risk must be considered together.
- If a family member has a known BRCA change,
other family members may want to be tested.
- If your family member with breast
or ovarian cancer tests negative for BRCA changes, you probably don't carry
those changes, either. In this case, you have the same chance of
cancer as that of the general public, based on your age and personal and family
Only about 5% to 10% of breast and ovarian cancers are
linked to the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene change. If you have a strong family history
of breast or ovarian cancer, you may still have a higher chance of developing
breast cancer even if you have a negative BRCA result. Other gene changes are
possible that make cancer more likely.
Abnormal (called positive)
BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene
changes are present.
Women who have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene changes
have about a 35% to 84% chance of developing breast cancer and between a 20%
and 40% chance of developing
ovarian cancer during their lifetimes.2, 3 These numbers show a wide range of chance and depend on your
other personal and family history.
Men with BRCA1 changes have a higher risk of breast cancer and possibly other cancers, such as pancreatic, testicular, or prostate cancer. Men with BRCA2 changes have an increased risk of breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancers.2
Uncertain (called variant of uncertain significance or VUS)
This result may mean that a gene change is present but it is
difficult for your doctor to know if the change is important and if it changes
your chances of developing cancer.
What Affects the Test
Your doctor will talk with you
about anything that may stop you from having the test or that may change the