New Approaches to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer
From tweaking the size and timing of chemotherapy, to adjusting how it's administered, small improvements are making a big difference in women's lives.
The Future of Chemotherapy
Doctors and researchers are developing still other approaches to breast cancer chemotherapy. While drugs designed to prevent anti-angiogenesis originally attracted a great deal of attention in the press and inside pharmaceutical companies, studies have have been almost uniformly disappointing so far. The recent research into using Avastin, an anti-angiogenesis drug, in advanced breast cancer have not been encouraging, but further studies are planned. Other drugs and treatments are being developed and several institutions are looking into the possibility of a cancer vaccine.
Because of its toxicity and the harm it causes to both healthy and cancerous cells alike, traditional chemotherapy has inherent limitations. "Eventually, I think we'd like to get rid of chemotherapy as we know it," says Seidman. He hopes that as more is learned about breast cancer, experts will continue to develop more targeted approaches to systemic, or full-body, therapy.
One new approach being studied involves using liposomes, molecules that can be artificially filled with a chemotherapy drug and inserted into the body. These liposomes are essentially containers that carry a chemotherapy drug directly to the tumor, sparing the rest of the body unnecessary damage.
Treatment will also become more customized as researchers better understand the genetics of various subtypes of breast cancer. Different types of breast cancer respond better to different treatments. Drugs such as Herceptin -- which is designed to affect a specific type of cancer cell with high levels of the HER2 protein -- are the first new targeted medications. Researchers are also working on developing genetic tests for cancer cells that might allow doctors to identify the kind of cancer and thus determine a person's ideal treatment from the outset.
Seidman reports that at Memorial Sloan-Kettering, breast cancer researchers have been studying the drugs geldanimycin and Gleevec -- the latter is currently used to treat certain types of abdominal cancer and leukemia -- for their targeted effects on cancer cells. Results are a ways off, but as more precise and focused ways of attacking cancer become possible, doctors may someday be able to stop relying on the generic, toxic chemotherapy agents that have been used for decades.