It doesn’t happen often, but sometimes mothers-to-be have breast cancer. Getting pregnant doesn't cause the cancer, although the changes in hormones from the pregnancy can make the disease grow faster.
Your breasts thicken while you're expecting, and that can make it hard to spot small masses or lumps. Because of this, breast cancer tumors are often larger and more advanced by the time they’re noticed.
Cancer didn't catch Christina Applegate unprepared. Because her mother had battled both breast cancer and ovarian cancer, Applegate had been going for regular mammograms since the age of 30. "But when I turned 36, my doctor said that my breasts were just too dense for mammography alone, and he referred me for screening MRIs at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center," she recalls.
Just a few months before she learned she herself had breast cancer, the actor got a shocking insight into the struggles faced...
This makes it extra important to have breast exams throughout pregnancy. Any lumps or suspicious symptoms need to be checked by a doctor.
How Is It Diagnosed?
The best thing you can do while pregnant is to see your doctor regularly. These visits are called prenatal (or "before birth") checkups, and they're crucial for keeping you and your baby in the best possible health. During some of these visits, you may have breast exams to check for changes.
You should also regularly do self-exams at home. That way you’ll be more able to notice any changes in your breasts. If you’re not sure exactly how to give yourself a breast exam, your doctor or nurse can teach you.
A mammogram is considered fairly safe during pregnancy, but it may not be as helpful because of the increased density of the breasts. A three-dimensional mammogram may be a better option.
If a suspicious lump is found, your doctor should do a biopsy. She'll remove a small sample of the suspicious tissue with a needle or by making a small cut. The sample tissue gets checked under a microscope and with other methods to look for any cancer cells.
Your doctor might also give you an ultrasound to assess the extent of any disease and to guide the biopsy.
What Happens to My Baby if I Have Breast Cancer?
Ending a pregnancy won’t improve a woman's chances of beating breast cancer. Also, there's no evidence that the cancer harms the baby. But the treatments have risks.
Surgery, in general, is safe during any trimester of pregnancy. If the cancer is still in its early stages, your doctor will most likely recommend removing either the suspicious lump (lumpectomy) or the entire breast (mastectomy). If you're in the first or second trimester, a mastectomy is the preferred surgery. Lumpectomy is usually an option for women diagnosed in the third trimester. Radiation therapy usually doesn’t start until after pregnancy because it can harm the baby.