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Invasive Breast Cancer: Symptoms, Treatments, Prognosis

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What is tumor grading?

After surgery to remove the breast tumor, a pathologist will check the breast tissue. The pathologist will then assign a grade to the tumor. The grade depends on how closely the cancer cells resemble normal tissue cells when viewed under a microscope. Low-grade cancer cells are similar to normal breast cells. Higher grade breast cancer cells look more abnormal. They indicate the breast cancer is more aggressive.

The pathologist will also do a test for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors. This test will show whether female hormones -- estrogen or progesterone -- influence the cancer cells. If the test is positive, it means hormones cause the cancer cells to grow. In that case, hormonal therapy may be effective in treating the cancer.

Tests for the HER2 oncogene will also be conducted. A positive test indicates that additional drugs like herceptin will be used.

Other tests may be warranted. This depends on the stage of the tumor. These tests will determine if the cancer has spread from the breast into other areas of the body.

How is invasive breast cancer treated?

There are many treatments for invasive breast cancer. They include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Biologic therapy

Your doctor may use one breast cancer treatment or a combination of them. The goal will be to give you the best prognosis.

The type of breast cancer treatment your doctor recommends will be determined by different factors. Those factors include:

  • Size of the tumor
  • Location of the tumor
  • Results of lab tests done on the cancer cells
  • Stage of the breast cancer
  • Your age and general health
  • Your menopause status
  • Your personal feelings about the treatment options

Invasive breast cancer treatments may be local or systemic. Local treatments, including surgery and radiation therapy, are used to remove the breast cancer tumor and destroy or control the remaining cancer cells. Systemic treatments include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Biologic therapy

These treatments aim to destroy or control cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body or to try to decrease the risk of your cancer coming back.

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