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    Breast Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Breast Cancer

    1. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Appendix of Randomized Controlled Trials

      Health Insurance Plan, United States 1963 [1,2]Age at entry: 40 to 64 years.Randomization: Individual, but with significant imbalances in the distribution of women between assigned arms, as evidenced by menopausal status (P < .0001) and education (P = .05). Sample size: 30,000 to 31,092 in study group and 30,565 to 30,765 in control group. Consistency of reports: Variation in sample size reports. Intervention: Annual two-view mammography (MMG) and CBE for 3 years. Control: Usual care. Compliance: Nonattenders to first screening (35% of the screened population) were not reinvited.Contamination: Screening MMG was not available outside the trial, but frequency of CBE performance among control women is unknown.Cause of death attribution: Women who died of breast cancer that had been diagnosed before entry into the study were excluded from the comparison between the screening and control groups. However, these exclusions were determined differently

    2. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - nci_ncicdr0000062745-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Male Breast Cancer Treatment

    3. Breast Cancer Screening - Changes to This Summary (10 / 24 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

    4. Get More Information From NCI

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of breast cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

    5. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

    6. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology

      Evaluation of Breast SymptomsWomen with breast symptoms are not candidates for screening because they require a diagnostic evaluation. During a 10-year period, 16% of 2,400 women aged 40 to 69 years sought medical attention for breast symptoms at their health maintenance organization.[1] Women younger than 50 years were twice as likely to seek evaluation. Additional testing was performed in 66% of these women, including invasive procedures performed in 27%. Cancer was diagnosed in 6.2%, most often stage II or III. Of the breast symptoms prompting medical attention, a mass was most likely to lead to a cancer diagnosis (10.7%) and pain was least likely (1.8%) to do so.Pathologic Diagnosis of Breast CancerBreast cancer is most often diagnosed by pathologic review of a fixed specimen of breast tissue. The breast tissue can be obtained from a symptomatic area or from an area identified by an imaging test. A palpable lesion can be biopsied with core needle biopsy or, less often, fine-needle

    7. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

      Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of breast cancer screening tests include the following: Finding breast cancer may not improve health or help a woman live longer. Screening may not help you if you have fast-growing breast cancer or if it has already spread to other places in your body. Also, some breast cancers found on a screening mammogram may never cause symptoms or become life-threatening. When such cancers are found, treatment would not help you live longer and may instead cause serious side effects. At this time, it is not possible to be sure which breast cancers found by screening will cause problems and which ones will not.False-negative test results can occur.

    8. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Characteristics of Cancers Detected by Screening Mammography

      Several studies have shown that the method of cancer detection is a powerful predictor of patient outcome,[1] which is useful for prognostication and treatment decisions. All of the studies accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size.A 10-year follow-up study of 1,983 Finnish women with invasive breast cancer demonstrated that the method of cancer detection is an independent prognostic variable. When controlled for age, nodal status, and tumor size, screen-detected cancers had a lower risk of relapse and better overall survival. For women whose cancers were detected outside screening, the hazard ratio (HR) for death was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–3.11), even though they were more likely to receive adjuvant systemic therapy.[2]Similarly, an examination of the breast cancers found in three randomized screening trials (Health Insurance Plan, National Breast Screening Study [NBSS]-1, and NBSS-2) accounted for stage, nodal status, and tumor size and determined

    9. Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent - Stages of Male Breast Cancer

      After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body. This process is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Breast cancer in men is staged the same as it is in women. The spread of cancer from the breast to lymph nodes and other parts of the body appears to be similar in men and women.The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Sentinel lymph node biopsy: The removal of the sentinel lymph node during surgery. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor. It is the first lymph node the cancer is likely to spread to from the tumor. A radioactive substance and/or

    10. Breast Cancer - Psychosocial Issues in Inherited Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndromes

      IntroductionPsychosocial research in the context of cancer genetic testing helps to define psychological outcomes, interpersonal and familial effects, and cultural and community responses. It also identifies behavioral factors that encourage or impede screening and other health behaviors. It can enhance decision-making about risk-reduction interventions, evaluate psychosocial interventions to reduce distress and/or other negative sequelae related to risk notification and genetic testing, provide data to help resolve ethical concerns, and predict the interest in testing of various groups. Research in these areas is limited by few randomized controlled trials, and many reports are based on uncontrolled studies of selected high-risk populations. Research is likely to expand considerably with access to larger populations of at-risk individuals. There have been a number of descriptions of cancer

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